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Go Back > Forums > SnitchSeeker RPG > SnitchSeeker RPG Archives > Hogwarts Archive > Headmaster: Mohamed Sohnoun's Reign > Term 44: September - December 2016

Term 44: September - December 2016 Term Forty-Four: Year of the Poltergeist (Sept 2090 - June 2091)

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Old 12-15-2012, 11:38 PM
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Old 12-16-2012, 12:05 AM   #2 (permalink)

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No-one knows exactly how old the runes are. Rune-like symbols appear as cave markings as early as the late Bronze Age (circa 1300 BC), and they are mentioned in the Bible, but their use in ritual and as an Oracle for consultation must certainly pre-date their use as a system of writing. "An Introduction to English Runes 1973,1999" and "Reading the Past - Runes 1987" note that the runic forms were well established and gave the appearance of having been in use for some centuries before the time of the earliest written language inscriptions. The fact that the runes were each given meaningful names confirms that they had some magical significance to their users long before they emerged as an alphabet for records and messages.

The word rune itself comes from the old Norse word Runa meaning a secret or mystery, and it seems likely that the early runemasters and runemistresses were considered to have some magic or mystic power in their understanding of the runes.

The runes represent objects, gods, people, animals, concepts and occurrences. They were known by names from which their alphabetic and phonetic values were taken, but it must be remembered that the early Germanic and Norse tribes who developed them did so long before they had any need for writing messages.

It was not until about AD200, when the runemal (i.e. the art of runic interpretation) was wide-spread in Northern Europe that the runic alphabet emerged. This alphabet became known as the Futhark or Futhorc, after the names of the first 6 runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raido, Kenaz) and it is these 24 symbols that now comprise the rune set. Some modern diviners also use a blank to represent Odin, fate or destiny - but it is probably more useful as a spare in case of loss. A blank cannot rightfully be called a "rune" because there is no symbol on it. And in any case, the rune Ansuz is generally accepted to represent Odin by the majority of experienced rune users.

There are very few surviving runic inscriptions and most of them are on stone or metal - the most durable of materials. Only a handful of inscriptions carved on wood have ever been found, and none of these is from Britain.

There is sufficient evidence to show that the Ancient Pagan or Anglo-Saxon runes (known to runologists as the Anglo-Friesian runes from their geographical occurrence) are the same 24 basic runes with variations in their form due to usage over the centuries. For example, the Hagalaz of the Norse resembled an angled H (ᚺ) but the Anglo-Saxons added a second cross-bar (ᚻ). Variations in pronunciation can also occur. For instance, the Norsemen pronounced W as a V, but Anglo-Saxons had adapted this to the modern W sound by 600AD.

There are those who suggest that many of the rune forms are copied from Roman script - the system of letters on which modern Western writing is based. Such examples as Mannaz (ᛗ), Fehu (ᚠ), Berkanan (ᛒ), Raido (ᚱ) are obviously very similar, but it seems more likely that the rune symbols (although not then used as letters) are earlier in development. Or at least, they were developed from the same source as the Roman script.

Consider the technology and equipment that was necessary to undertake Roman writing. Parchment or paper with all the processing that requires - such as blanching chemicals and drying processes; the formulation of durable ink and its mass production; and not forgetting the development of a complex writing implement such as the quill pen. A civilization is hardly likely to undertake all these developments unless a suitable format for writing already existed.

The early runemasters and runemistresses developed a system of writing from their existing fund of mystic or religious symbols which would endure on wood. The symbols were composed of vertical and angled straight lines that could easily be cut or burned in wood.

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Old 12-16-2012, 12:56 AM   #3 (permalink)

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Odin's Search for Wisdom

The wonderful ash-tree, Ygdrasil, made a far-spreading shade against the fierce heat of the sun in summer, and a stronghold against the piercing winds of winter. No man could remember when it had been young. Little children played under its branches, grew to be strong men and women, lived to be old and weary and feeble, and died; and yet the ash tree gave no signs of decay. Forever preserving its freshness and beauty, it was to live as long as there were men to look upon it, animals to feed under it, birds to flutter among its branches. This mighty ash-tree touched and bound all the worlds together in its wonderful circle of life.

One root it sent deep down into the sightless depths of Hel, where the dead lived; another it fastened firmly in Jotunheim, the dreary home of the giants; and with the third it grasped Midgard, the dwelling-place of men. Serpents and all kinds of worms gnawed continually at its roots, but were never able to destroy them. Its branches spread out over the whole earth, and the topmost boughs swayed in the clear air of Asgard itself, rustling against the Valhal, the home of the heroes who had done great deeds or died manfully in battle.

At the foot of the tree sat the three Norns, wonderful spinners of fate, who weave the thread of every man's life, making it what they will; and a strange weaving it often was, cut off when the pattern was just beginning to show itself. And every day these Norns sprinkled the tree with the water of life from the Urdar fountain, and so kept it forever green. In the topmost branches sat an eagle singing a strange song about the birth of the world, its decay and death. Under its branches browsed all manner of animals; among its leaves every kind of bird made its nest; by day the rainbow hung under it; at night the pale northern light flashed over it, and as the winds swept through its rustling branches, the multitudinous murmur of the leaves told strange stories of the past and of the future.

The giants were older than the gods, and knew so much more of the past that the gods had to go to them for wisdom. After a time, however, the gods became wiser than the giants, or they would have ceased to be gods, and been destroyed by the giants, instead of destroying them.

When the world was still young, and there were still many things which even the gods had to learn, Odin was so anxious to become wise that he went to a deep well whose waters touched the roots of Ygdrasil itself. The keeper of the well was a very old and very wise giant, named Mimer, or Memory, and he gave no draughts out of the well until he was well paid; for the well contained the water of wisdom, and whoever drank of it became straightway wonderfully wise.

"Give me a draught of this clear water, Mimer," said Odin, when he had reached the well, and was looking down into its clear, fathomless depths.

Mimer, the keeper, was so old that he could remember everything that had ever happened. His eyes were clear and calm as the stars, his face was noble and restful, and his long white beard flowed down to his waist.

"This water is only to be had at a great price," he said in a wonderfully sweet, majestic tone. "I cannot give to all who ask, but only to those who are able and willing to give greatly in return," he continued.

If Odin had been less of a god he would have thought longer and bargained sharper, but he was so godlike that he cared more to be wise and great than for anything else. "I will give you whatever you ask," he answered.

Mimer thought a moment. "You must leave an eye," he said at last.

Then he drew up a great draught of the sparkling water, and Odin quenched his divine thirst and went away rejoicing, although he had left an eye behind. Even the gods could not be wise without struggle and toil and sacrifice.

So Odin became the wisest in all the worlds, and there was no god or giant that could contend with him. There was one giant, however, who was called all-wise in Jotunheim, with whom many had contended in knowledge, with curious and difficult questions, and had always been silenced and killed, for then, as now, a man's life often depended on his wisdom. Of this giant, Vafthrudner, and his wisdom many wonderful stories were told, and even among the gods his fame was great. One day as Odin sat thinking of many strange things in the worlds, and many mysterious things in the future, he thought of Vafthrudner. "I will go to Jotunheim and measure wisdom with Vafthrudner, the wisest of the giants," said he to Frigg, his wife, who was sitting by. Then Frigg remembered those who had gone to contend with the all-wise giant and had never come back, and a fear came over her that the same fate might befall Odin.

"You are wisest in all the worlds, All-Father," she said; "why should you seek a treacherous giant who knows not half so much as you?"

But Odin, who feared nothing, could not be persuaded to stay, and Frigg sadly said good-by as he passed out of Asgard on his journey to Jotunheim. His blue mantle set with stars and his golden helmet he left behind him, and as he journeyed swiftly those who met him saw nothing godlike in him; nor did Vafthrudner when at last he stood at the giant's door.

"I am a simple traveler, Gangraad by name," he said, as Vafthrudner came gruffly toward him. "I ask your hospitality and a chance to strive with you in wisdom." The giant laughed scornfully at the thought of a man coming to contend with him for mastery in knowledge.

"You shall have all you want of it," he growled, "and if you cannot answer my questions you shall never go hence alive." He did not even ask Odin to sit down, but let him stand in the hall, despising him too much to show him courtesy. After a time he began to ask questions. "Tell me, if you can, O wise Gangraad, the name of the river which divides Asgard from Jotunheim."

"The river Ifing, which never freezes over," answered Odin quickly, as if it were the easiest question in the world; and indeed it was to him, although no man could have answered it. Vafthrudner looked up in great surprise when he heard the reply.

"Good," he said, "you have answered rightly. Tell me, now, the names of the horses that carry day and night across the sky."

Before the words were fairly spoken Odin replied, "Skinfaxe and Hrimfaxe." The giant could not conceal his surprise that a man should know these things.

"Once more," he said quickly, as if he were risking everything on one question; "tell me the name of the plain where the Last Battle will be fought."

This was a terrible question, for the Last Battle was still far off in the future, and only the gods and the greatest of the giants knew where and when it would come. Odin bowed his head when he heard the words, for to be ready for that battle was the divine work of his life, and then said, slowly and solemnly, "On the plain of Vigrid, which is one hundred miles on each side."

Vafthrudner rose trembling from his seat. He knew now that Gangraad was some great one in disguise, and that his own life hung on the answers he himself would soon be forced to make. "Sit here beside me," he said, "for, whoever you are, worthier antagonist has never entered these walls."

Then they sat down together in the rude stone hall, the mightiest of the gods and the wisest of the giants, and the great contest in wisdom, with a life hanging in either scale, went on between them. Wonderful secrets of the time when no man was and the time when no man will be, those silent walls listened to as Vafthrudner asked Odin one deep question after another, the answer coming swiftly and surely.

After a time the giant could ask no more, for he had exhausted his wisdom.

"It is my turn now," said Odin, and one after another he drew out from Vafthrudner the events of the past, then the wonderful things of the race of giants, and finally he began to question him of that dim, mysterious future whose secrets only the gods know; and as he touched these wonderful things Odin's eyes began to flash, and his form began to grow larger and nobler until he seemed no longer the humble Gangraad, but the mighty god he was, and Vafthrudner trembled as he felt the coming doom nearing him with every question.

So hours went by, until at last Odin paused in his swift questioning, stooped down and asked the giant, "What did Odin whisper in the ear of Balder as he ascended the funeral pile?"

Only Odin himself could answer this question, and Vafthrudner replied humbly and with awe, "Who but thyself, All-father, knoweth the words thou didst say to thy son in the days of old? I have brought my doom upon myself, for in my ignorance I have contended with wisdom itself. Thou art ever the wisest of all."

So Odin conquered, and Wisdom was victorious, as she always has been even when she has contended with giants.

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Old 12-16-2012, 02:37 AM   #4 (permalink)

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The Making of the Hammer

One day as Sif, Thor's beautiful wife, was sitting in the palace Bilskirner in Thrudvang, or thunder-world, she fell asleep, with her long hair falling about her shoulders like a shower of gold. She made a very pretty picture as she sat there in the sunlight. When Loki passed by and noticed that Sif was asleep he thought it was a good time to carry off her golden hair, and so rob her of that of which Thor was most proud. As noiselessly as he could, and more like a thief than a god, he stole into the palace, cut off the golden locks and carried them away, without leaving one behind as a trace of his evil deed.

When Sif awoke and found her beautiful hair gone, she went and hid herself, lest Thor coming home should miss the beauty which had always been like a light to his eyes. nd presently Thor came; but no Sif was there to meet him, making him forget with one proud look from her tender eyes the dangers and labours of his life. She never failed to greet him at the threshold before; and the strong god's heart, which had never beat a second quicker at sight of the greatest giant in the world, grew faint with fear that in his absence some mishap had befallen her.

He ran quickly from room to room in the palace, and at last he came upon Sif, hidden behind a pillar, her shorn head in her hands, weeping bitterly. In a few broken words she told Thor what had happened, and as she went on, Thor's wrath grew hotter and hotter until he was terrible to behold. Lightnings flashed out of his deep-set eyes, the palace trembled under his angry strides, and it seemed as if his fury would burst forth like some awful tempest uprooting and destroying everything in its path.

"I know who did it," he shouted, when Sif had ended her story. "It was that rascally Loke, and I'll break every bone in his thievish body;" and without as much as saying goodbye to his sobbing wife, he strode off like a thunder-cloud to Asgard, and there, coming suddenly upon Loki, he seized him by the neck and would have killed him on the spot had not Loki confessed his deed and promised to restore the golden hair.

"I'll get the swarthy elves to make a crown of golden hair for Sif more beautiful than she used to wear," gasped Loki, in the iron grasp of the angry Thor; and Thor, who cared more for Sif's beauty than for Loki's punishment, let the thief go, having bound him by solemn pledges to fulfil his promise without delay.

Loki lost no time, but went far underground to the gloomy smithy of the dwarfs, who were called Ivald's sons, and who were wonderful workers in gold and brass. "Make me a crown of golden hair," said Loki, "that will grow like any other hair, and I will give you whatever you want for your work."

The bargain was quickly made, and the busy little dwarfs were soon at their task, and in a little time they had done all that Loki asked, and more too; for in addition to the shining hair they gave Loki the spear Gungner and the famous ship Skidbladner. With these treasures in his arms Loki came into Asgard and began boasting of the wonderful things he had brought from the smithy of Ivald's sons. "Nobody like the sons of Ivald to work in metal!" he said. "The other dwarfs are all stupid little knaves compared with them."

Now it happened that the dwarf Brok was standing by and heard Loki's boasting; his brother Sindre was so cunning a workman that most of the dwarfs thought him by far the best in the world. It made Brok angry, therefore, to hear the sons of Ivald called the best workmen, and he spoke up and said, "My brother Sindre can make more wonderful things of gold and iron and brass than ever the sons of Ivald thought of."

"Your brother Sindre," repeated Loki scornfully. "Who is your brother Sindre?"

"The best workman in the world," answered Brok.

Loki laughed loud and long. "Go to your wonderful brother Sindre," said he, "and tell him if he can make three such precious things as the spear, the ship, and the golden hair, he shall have my head for his trouble." And Loki laughed longer and louder than before.

Brok was off to the underworld before the laugh died out of his ears, determined to have Loki's head if magic and hard work could do it. He went straight to Sindre and told him of the wager he had laid with Loki, and in a little while Sindre was hard at work in his smithy. It was a queer place for such wonderful work as was done in it, for it was nothing but a great cavern underground, with tools piled up in little heaps around its sides, and thick darkness everywhere when the furnace fire was not sending its glow out into the blackness. If you had looked in now, you would have seen a broad glare of light streaming out from the furnace, for Brok was blowing the bellows with all his might, and the coals were fairly blazing with heat.

When all was ready Sindre took a swine-skin, put it into the furnace, and telling Brok to blow the bellows until his return, went out of the smithy. Brok kept steadily at work, although a gad-fly flew in, buzzed noisily about, and finally settling on his hand, stung him so that he could hardly bear it. After a while Sindre came back and took out of the furnace a wonderful boar with bristles of pure gold.

Then Sindre took some gold, and placing it in the furnace bade Brok blow as if his life depended on it, and went out a second time. Brok had no sooner begun blowing than the troublesome gad-fly came back, and fastening upon his neck stung him so fiercely that he could hardly keep his hands away from his neck; but Brok was a faithful dwarf, who meant to do his work thoroughly if he died for it, and so he blew away as if it were the easiest thing in the world, until Sindre came back and took a shining ring from the fire. The third time Sindre put iron into the fire, and bidding Brok blow without ceasing, went out again. No sooner had he gone than the gad-fly flew in, and settling between Brok's eyes stung him so sharply and he could not see what he was doing.

He blew away as bravely as he could for some time, but the pain was so keen, and he was so blind, that at last he raised his hand quickly to brush the fly away. That very instant Sindre returned. "You have almost spoiled it," he said, as he took out of the glowing furnace the wonderful hammer Mjolner. "See how short you have made the handle! But you can't lengthen it now. So carry the gifts to Asgard, and bring me Loki's head."

Brok started off with the golden boar, the shining ring, and the terrible hammer. When he came through the great gate of Asgard the gods were very anxious to see the end of this strange contest, and taking their seats on their shining thrones they appointed Odin, Thor, and Frey to judge between Loki and Brok, as to which had the most wonderful things. Then Loki brought out the spear Gungner, which never misses its mark, and gave it to Odin; and the golden hair he gave to Thor, who placed it on Sif's head, and straightway it began to grow like any other hair, and Sif was as beautiful as on the day when Loki saw her in Thor's palace; and to Frey he gave the marvellous ship Skidbladner, which always found a breeze to drive it wherever its master would go, no matter how the sea was running, nor from what quarter the wind was blowing, and which could be folded up and carried in one's pocket.

Then Loke laughed scornfully. "Bring out the trinkets which that wonderful brother of yours has made," he said.

Brok came forward, and stood before the wondering gods with his treasures. "This ring," said he, handing it to Odin, "will cast off, every ninth night, eight other rings as pure and heavy as itself. This boar," giving it to Frey, "will run more swiftly in the air, and on the sea, by night or by day, than the swiftest horse, and no night will be so dark, no world so gloomy, that the shining of these bristles shall not make it light as noon-day. And this hammer," placing Mjolner in Thor's strong hands, "shall never fail, no matter how big nor how hard that which it smites may be; no matter how far it is thrown, it will always return to your hand; you may make it so small that it can be hidden in your bosom, and its only fault is the shortness of its handle."

Thor swung it round his head, and lightning flashed and flamed through Asgard, deep peals of thunder rolled through the sky, and mighty masses of cloud piled quickly up about him. The gods gathered around, and passed the hammer from one to the other, saying that it would be their greatest protection against their enemies, the frost-giants, who were always trying to force their way into Asgard, and they declared that Brok had won the wager. Brok's swarthy little face was as bright as his brother's furnace fire, so delighted was he to have beaten the boastful Loki.

But how was he to get his wager, now he had won it? It was no easy matter to take the head off a god's shoulders. Brok thought a moment. "I will take Loki's head," he said finally, thinking some of the other gods might help him.

"I will give you whatever you want in place of my head," growled Loki, angry that he was beaten, and having no idea of paying his wager by losing his head.

"I will have your head or I will have nothing," answered the plucky little dwarf, determined not to be cheated out of his victory.

"Well, then, take it," shouted Loki; but by the time Brok reached the place where he had been standing, Loki was far away, for he wore shoes with which he could run through the air or over the water. Then Brok asked Thor to find Loki and bring him back, which Thor did promptly, for the gods always saw to it that people kept their promises. When Loki was brought back Brok wanted to cut his head off at once.

"You may cut off my head, but you have no right to touch my neck," said Loki, who was cunning, as well as wicked. That was true, and of course the head could not be taken off without touching the neck, so Brok had to give it up.

But he determined to do something to make Loki feel that he had won his wager, so he took an awl and a thong and sewed his lips together so tightly that he could make no more boastings.

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Old 12-16-2012, 03:06 AM   #5 (permalink)

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How Thor Found His Hammer

The frost-giants were always trying to get into Asgard. For more than half the year they held the world in their grasp, locking up the streams in their rocky beds, hushing their music and the music of the birds as well, and leaving nothing but a wild waste of desolation under the cold sky. They hated the warm sunshine which stirred the wild flowers out of their sleep, and clothed the steep mountains with verdure, and set all the birds a-singing in the swaying tree-tops. They hated the beautiful god Balder, with whose presence summer came back to the ice-bound earth, and, above all, they hated Thor, whose flashing hammer drove them back into Jotunheim, and guarded the summer sky with its sudden gleamings of power. So long as Thor had his hammer Asgard was safe against the giants.

One morning Thor started up out of a long, deep sleep, and put out his hand for the hammer; but no hammer was there. Not a sign of it could be found anywhere, although Thor anxiously searched for it. Then a thought of the giants came suddenly in his mind; and his anger rose till his eyes flashed like great fires, and his red beard trembled with wrath. "Look, now, Loki," he shouted, "they have stolen Mjolner by enchantment, and no one on earth or in heaven knows where they have hidden it."

"We will get Freyja's falcon-guise and search for it," answered Loki, who was always quick to get into trouble or to get out of it again. So they went quickly to Folkvang and found Freyja surrounded by her maidens and weeping tears of pure gold, as she had always done since her husband went on his long journey.

"The hammer has been stolen by enchantment," said Thor. "Will you lend me the falcon-guise that I may search for it?"

"If it were silver, or even gold, you should have it and welcome," answered Freyja, glad to help Thor find the wonderful hammer that kept them all safe from the hands of the frost-giants.

So the falcon-guise was brought, and Loki put it on and flew swiftly out of Asgard to the home of the giants. His great wings made broad shadows over the ripe fields as he swept along, and the reapers, looking up from their work, wondered what mighty bird was flying seaward. At last he reached Jotunheim, and no sooner had he touched ground and taken off the falcon-guise than he came upon the giant Thrym, sitting on a hill twisting golden collars for his dogs and stroking the long manes of his horses.

"Welcome, Loki," said the giant. "How fares it with the gods and the elves, and what has brought you to Jotunheim?"

"It fares ill with both gods and elves since you stole Thor's hammer," replied Loki, guessing quickly that Thrym was the thief; "and I have come to find where you have hidden it."

Thrym laughed as only a giant can when he knows he has made trouble for somebody. "You won't find it," he said at last. "I have buried it eight miles under ground, and no one shall take it away unless he gets Freyja for me as my wife." The giant looked as if he meant what he said, and Loki, seeing no other way of finding the hammer, put on his falcon-guise and flew back to Asgard.

Thor was waiting to hear what news he brought, and both were soon at the great doors of Folkvang. "Put on your bridal dress, Freyja," said Thor bluntly, after his fashion, "and we will ride swiftly to Jotunheim." But Freyja had no idea of marrying a giant just to please Thor; and, in fact, that Thor should ask her to do such a thing threw her into such a rage that the floor shook under her angry tread, and her necklace snapped in pieces.

"Do you think I am a weak love-sick girl, to follow you to Jotunheim and marry Thrym?" she cried indignantly.

Finding they could do nothing with Freyja, Thor and Loke called all the gods together to talk over the matter and decide what should be done to get back the hammer. The gods were very much alarmed, because they knew the frost-giants would come upon Asgard as soon as they knew the hammer was gone. They said little, for they did not waste time with idle words, but they thought long and earnestly, and still they could find no way of getting hold of Mjolner once more.

At last Heimdal, who had once been a Van, and could therefore look into the future, said: "We must have the hammer at once or Asgard will be in danger. If Freyja will not go, let Thor be dressed up and go in her place. Let keys jingle from his waist and a woman's dress fall about his feet. Put precious stones upon his breast, braid his hair like a woman's, hang the necklace around his neck, and bind the bridal veil around his head."

Thor frowned angrily. "If I dress like a woman," he said, "you will jeer at me."

"Don't talk of jeers," retorted Loki; "unless that hammer is brought back quickly the giants will rule in our places."

Thor said no more, but allowed himself to be dressed like a bride, and soon drove off to Jotunheim with Loke beside him disguised as a servant-maid. There was never such a wedding journey before. They rode in Thor's chariot and the goats drew them, plunging swiftly along the way, thunder pealing through the mountains and the frightened earth blazing and smoking as they passed.

When Thrym saw the bridal party coming he was filled with delight. "Stand up, you giants," he shouted to his companions; "spread cushions upon the benches and bring in Freyja, my bride. My yards are full of golden-horned cows, black oxen please my gaze whichever way I look, great wealth and many treasures are mine, and Freyja is all I lack."

It was evening when the bride came driving into the giant's court in her blazing chariot. The feast was already spread against her coming, and with her veil modestly covering her face she was seated at the great table, Thrym fairly beside himself with delight. It wasn't every giant who could marry a goddess!

If the bridal journey had been so strange that any one but a foolish giant would have hesitated to marry a wife who came in such a turmoil of fire and storm, her conduct at the table ought certainly to have put Thrym on his guard; for never had bride such an appetite before. The great tables groaned under the load of good things, but they were quickly relieved of their burden by the voracious bride. She ate a whole ox before the astonished giant had fairly begun to enjoy his meal.

Then she devoured eight large salmon, one after the other, without stopping to take breath; and having eaten up the part of the feast specially prepared for the hungry men, she turned upon the delicacies which had been made for the women, and especially for her own fastidious appetite. Thrym looked on with wondering eyes, and at last, when she had added to these solid foods three whole barrels of mead, his amazement was so great that, his astonishment getting the letter of his politeness, he called out, "Did any one ever see such an appetite in a bride before, or know a maid who could drink so much mead?"

Then Loki, who was playing the part of a serving-maid, thinking that the giant might have some suspicions, whispered to him, "Freyja was so happy in the thought of coming here that she has eaten nothing for eight whole days." Thrym was so pleased at this evidence of affection that he leaned forward and raised the veil as gently as a giant could, but he instantly dropped it and sprang back the whole length of the hall before the bride's terrible eyes.

"Why are Freyja's eyes so sharp?" he called to Loki. "They burn me like fire."

"Oh," said the cunning serving-maid, "she has not slept for a week, so anxious has she been to come here, and that is why her eyes are so fiery."

Everybody looked at the bride and nobody envied Thrym. They thought it was too much like marrying a thunder-storm. The giant's sister came into the hall just then, and seeing the veiled form of the bride sitting there went up to her and asked for a bridal gift. "If you would have my love and friendship give me those rings of gold upon your fingers." But the bride sat perfectly silent. No one had yet seen her face or heard her voice.

Thrym became very impatient. "Bring in the hammer," he shouted, "that the bride may be consecrated, and wed us in the name of Var." If the giant could have seen the bride's eyes when she heard these words he would have sent her home as quickly as possible, and looked somewhere else for a wife.

The hammer was brought and placed in the bride's lap, and everybody looked to see the marriage ceremony; but the wedding was more strange and terrible than the bridal journey had been. No sooner did the bride's fingers close round the handle of Mjolner than the veil which covered her face was torn off and there stood Thor, the giant-queller, his terrible eyes blazing with wrath.

The giants shuddered and shrank away from those flaming eyes, the sight of which they dreaded more than anything else in all the worlds; but there was no chance of escape. Thor swung the hammer round his head and the great house rocked on its foundations. There was a vivid flash of lightning, an awful crash of thunder, and the burning roof and walls buried the whole company in one common ruin.

Thrym was punished for stealing the hammer, his wedding guests got crushing blows instead of bridal gifts, and Thor and Loki went back to Asgard, where the presence of Mjolner made the gods safe once more.

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Old 12-17-2012, 09:14 PM   #6 (permalink)

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How Thor Fought The Giant Hrunger

One bright summer morning, Thor, the God of Thunder, rode out of Asgard far eastward, fighting giants as he went and slaying them with his mighty hammer, Mjolner; but Odin, his beautiful blue mantle shining with stars and his helmet of gold glittering in the clear air, mounted his swift horse Sleipner, and went to Jotunheim, the home of the greatest giant of them all.

As he swept along every one stopped to look, for such a horse and such a rider were rarely seen on earth. Sometimes the swift hoofs clattered along the rocky roads across the open country, sometimes they struck quick echoes out of the mountain sides in the deep dells, sometimes they rang along the very summits of the hills; and again, in an instant, horse and rider swept noiseless through the air like a strange phantom in the clear mid-day.

When Odin reached Jotunheim he came upon Hrungner, the strongest of the giants. "Who are you, riding through air with golden helmet and flowing mantle?" asked the giant. "You have a splendid horse."

"None half so good in Jotunheim!" was Odin's answer.

Odin's boast made the giant angry. "None half so good?" he repeated. "I'll show you a better myself."

Whereupon he sprang on Goldfax and off they both went like a rushing wind. Neither gods nor men ever saw such a race before as these ran over earth and through air, Sleipner dashing with foaming flanks ahead and Goldfax close behind with flaming eye and mane outspread. So eager was the chase and so full of rage and desire the mind of Hrungner that before he knew it he was carried within the gates of Asgard, where the welcome of the gods, as they gathered round the foaming chargers, almost made him forget that he was among his enemies.

They led him into the great hall where the feasts were held, and after their usual manner set out the great tankards brimming with wine, and filled for him the hollow horns from which Thor often drank deep and long. As they were set before him the giant drained them one by one at a single draught; and after a time, as horn after horn of sparkling wine was poured down Hrungner's capacious throat, he forgot his peril, and after the manner of drunken men began to boast of his mighty deeds and of the terrible things he meant to do against the gods.

"Oho," he shouted, "I'll pick up this little Valhal in one hand and carry it off to Jotunheim; I'll pull this high-walled Asgard down stone after stone, and knock the heads of all these puny gods together until none are left save Freyja and Sif, and they shall boil my pot and keep my house for me." And so this drunken giant disturbed the peace of heaven, and the gods were sorry enough that he had ever ridden within their gates; but he was their guest, and the rites of hospitality must be respected even with a drunken braggart. So Freyja filled his horn again and again, until he roared out in fury, "I'll drink every drop of wine in Asgard before I leave."

This boast made the gods, already weary of his boasting, indignant, and they called on Thor to rid them of the braggart. The God of Thunder came striding into the hall swinging his mighty hammer, with anger on his brow and in his eye, to hear the gods insulted under the very roof of Asgard. "Why does this stupid giant sit here in Asgard drinking our wine as if he were a god?" shouted Thor, glaring at Hrungner as if he would smite him on the spot; but Hrungner, full of drunken courage, glared back at Thor.

"I came here with Odin," he growled, "and the hospitality of the gods will suffer more than I if a hand is laid on me."

"You may rue that hospitality before you are out of Asgard," was the angry reply of Thor.

"Small honour to you if you slay me here unarmed and solitary; if you want to prove your boasted valour meet me face to face at Grjottungard. Foolish it was in me to leave my shield and flint-stone at home; had I those weapons I would challenge you to fight me here and now, but if you kill me unarmed I proclaim you a coward in the face of all Asgard."

"I will meet you, braggart, when and where you will," hotly retorted Thor, whom no giant had ever before challenged to a holmgang, or single combat. And Hrungner got himself safely out of Asgard and journeyed as fast as he could to Jotunheim to make ready for the fight.

When the news of these things spread there was nothing heard of among the giants but Hrungner's journey and the holmgang he was to fight with Thor. Nobody thought or talked of anything else, for if Hrungner, the most powerful of them all, should be beaten, Thor would never cease to make war upon them. Long and earnest was the talk among the giants, for Thor's terrible hammer had often rung among the hills, and they dreaded the flash of it through the air and the crash of it as it fell smiting and crushing whatsoever opposed it. To give Hrungner courage they built an immense giant of clay at Grjottungard, but they could find no heart big enough for such a huge body, and so they were obliged at last to use a mare's heart, which fluttered and throbbed terribly when Thor came; for it is the heart and not the size of the body which makes one strong and great.

The clay giant, when finished, was so vast that the shadow of him was like a cloud upon the landscape. When all was ready Hrungner stood beside the false giant ready for the fight, and a terrible foe he was, too; for his heart was as hard as rock, his head was of stone, and so was the great broad shield he held before him. And swung on his shoulder was the huge flint-stone which he meant to hurl at Thor.

Thor meanwhile was on his way to Grjottungard with his servant Thjalfe, and Thjalfe ran ahead, and when he saw Hrungner, called out, "You stand unguarded, giant; you hold your shield before you, and Thor has seen you, and will come violently upon you from beneath the earth."

Then Hrungner threw his shield on the ground and stood upon it, grasping the flint-stone in both hands. In a moment the sky began to darken with rushing clouds, broad flashes of lightning blazed across the heavens, and deafening peals of thunder rolled crashing over the terror-stricken earth. Striding from cloud to cloud, swinging his terrible hammer in an awful uproar of lightning and storm, Thor came rushing on in all his godlike might. The heavens were on fire, the mountains shook on their foundations, and the earth rocked to and fro as the god of strength moved on to battle.

Poor Mokkerkalfe, the clay giant, was so frightened that the perspiration poured in streams from his great body, and his cowardly heart fluttered like an imprisoned bird. Then Thor, swinging the flashing hammer with all his might, hurled it at Hrungner, and on the very instant the giant flung the flint-stone. The two rushed like meteors and met with a tremendous crash in mid-air. The flint-stone broke in pieces, one falling to the ground and making a mountain where it lay, and the other striking Thor with such force that he fell full-length on the ground; but the terrible hammer struck Hrungner in the very centre of his forehead, crushed his head into small pieces, and threw him with his foot across Thor's neck. Thjalfe meanwhile had thrown himself on Mokkerkalfe, and the clay giant, like a great many other sharp giants, fell into pieces at the very first blow; and so Thor was victor of the holmgang.

But how was Thor to get up? The dead giant's foot lay across his neck, and, try as he might with all his strength, he could not lift it off. Then Thjalfe came and tried in vain to set Thor free; and when the gods heard of the trouble Thor was in they all came, and one by one tried to lift Hrungner's foot, and not one of them could do it; so although Thor had killed the giant it looked as if the giant had beaten him too.

After a time Thor's little son Magne, or strength, came that way. He was only three days old, but he walked quickly up to his father, quietly lifted the immense foot and threw it on the ground as if it were the easiest thing in the world, saying as he did so, "It was a great mishap that I came so late, father; for I believe I could have slain this giant with my fist." Thor rose up quickly and greeted his son as if he were prouder of him than of the slaying of the giant, and declared that he should have the giant's beautiful horse Goldfax for a reward; but Odin would not listen to it, and so Magne had to content himself with his father's praise and the glory of his wonderful deed.

Even now Thor's troubles were not ended, for the piece of flint-stone which struck his head so violently that it threw him to the ground remained imbedded in it, and made the strong god so much trouble that when he had reached Thrudvang, or thunder-world, he sent for the sorceress Groa, the wife of the wise Orvandel, that she might remove the unwieldy stone. Groa came with all her wisdom and began weaving magic spells about Thor, and singing strange incantations to the most weird and mysterious airs in the world, until the flint-stone became entirely loose.

When he felt the stone gradually loosened, and knew that Groa could take it out in a moment, Thor was so glad that he tried to think how he might reward her in some way for the good service she had done him; and as even a god cannot give anything greater than happiness, he bethought himself of something which would make her very happy. So he began to speak of Orvandel, who had long been absent from her, and whom she greatly loved. He told her that he had entered Jotunheim from the north, wading the deep rivers, and had secreted Orvandel in a basket, and so borne him out of the giant's country, and that as they journeyed along in the bitter weather one of Orvandel's toes protruded from the basket and was frozen and he, Thor, broke it off and threw it into the shining sky, where it had become the star called "Orvandel's Toe"; and then he added that Orvandel would shortly come to his home again.

When Groa heard this news of her husband she was filled with such joy that all her magical songs and wonderful incantations went straight out of her head and she could not get them back again, and the stone remains in Thor's head to this day. And this is the reason why no one must ever throw a flint-stone across the floor, because when this happens the stone in Thor's head moves, and the strong god is very uncomfortable.

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Old 12-17-2012, 09:34 PM   #7 (permalink)

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How Loki Was Punished

In the beginning Loke had been the brother of Odin, and one of the foremost of the gods, but the lawlessness and passion that were in him had won the mastery, and in earth and heaven he was fast bringing ruin and sorrow. What the hard-hearted frost-giants had always tried to do and failed, Loke did; for in the end the evil in him destroyed Asgard, and brought in the long winter of storm and darkness. It was he who stole Sif's hair and Freyja's necklace, who persuaded Idun to go into the woods that the giant Thjasse might carry off her apples, who stung the dwarf so that the handle of Thor's hammer was shortened, who induced Thor to go on his dangerous journey to Geirrod; but worst of all his crimes was the killing of Balder, and the refusal to weep for him when all the world was in tears.

After bringing so much sorrow upon others, suffering at last came to him. Not long after Balder 's death the sea-god Ęger gave a great feast, and brewed ale for the gods in the great kettle which Thor had taken from the giant Hymer. All the gods were there save Thor, and they tried to be merry, although they were sad enough at heart. In the midst of them sat Loki, gloomy and silent, as if his terrible crime had drawn a black line around him. The feast went on merrily; but he seemed to have no part in it, for no one spoke to him. Great horns of ale passed from hand to hand, and as they talked and feasted the gods forgot for a moment the sorrow that lay upon all the world.

"Ęger," said one, "these are good servants of yours. They are quick of eye and foot, and one lacks nothing under their care."

Loki was so full of rage that he could not endure that even the servants of the other gods should be praised, and with flashing eyes and a face black with hate he sprang from his place and struck the servant nearest him so violently that he fell dead on the floor. A silence of horror fell on all the gods at this new sin, and then with fierce indignation they drove him out, and shut the doors against him forever.

Loki strode off furiously for a little distance, and then turned and came back. The gods meantime had become merry again. "What are they talking about?" he asked another servant who was standing.

"They are telling their great deeds," answered the servant; "but no one has anything good to say of you."

Maddened by these words, Loki forgot his fear in a terrible rage, strode back into the hall and stood there like a thunder-cloud; when the gods saw him they became suddenly silent.

"I have travelled hither from a long distance," said he hoarsely, "and I am thirsty; who will give me to drink of the mead?" No one spoke or stirred. Loki's face grew blacker. "Why are you all silent?" he cried; "have you lost your tongues? Will you find place for me here, or do you turn me away?"

Brage looked at him steadily and fearlessly. "The gods will never more make room for you," he said.

When he heard these words, Loki ceased to look like a god, for the fury and hate of a devil were in his face. He cursed the gods until every face was pale with horror. Like an accusing conscience he told them all their faults and sins; he made them feel their weaknesses so keenly that Vidar, the silent god, rose to give him his seat and silence him, but now that his fury was let loose nothing could stop him.

One by one he called each god by his name, and dragged his weaknesses into the view of all, and last of all he came to Sif, Thor's wife, and cursed her; and now a low muttering was heard afar off, and then a distant roll of thunder deepening into awful peals that echoed and re-echoed among the hills. The gods sat silent in their places, and even Loke grew dumb. Great flashes of lightning flamed through the hall, and made his dark face more terrible to look at. Crash followed close upon crash until the mountains quaked, and the great hall trembled; then came a blinding flash, and Thor stood in the midst swinging Mjolner, and looking as if he would smite the world into fragments. He looked at Loki, and Loki, cowering before Thor's terrible eyes of fire, walked out of the hall cursing Ęger as he went, and wishing that flames might break upon his realm and devour it and him.

And now Loki, no longer a god in nature or in rank, became an outcast and a fugitive flying from the wrath of the gods whom he had insulted and wronged. He went from place to place until he came upon a deep valley among the mountains, so entirely shut in that he thought no one from Asgard could ever look into it. There he built a house in the hollows of the rocks, with four doors through which he could look in every direction, so that no one could come near his hiding-place without his knowing it. He took on many disguises; often in the daytime he took the shape of a salmon and hid in the deep waters, where he floated solitary and motionless while the gods were searching for him far and wide.

Days and weeks passed away, and Loki began to think he was safe from the pursuit of his enemies. He began to busy and amuse himself as he used to do before he was shut out of Asgard. He had always been a skilful fisherman, and now, as he sat alone in his house before the fire, he took flax and yarn and began to knit the meshes of the first net that was made since the world began.His eyes burnt at the thought of the new sport which he was going to have, and his cunning hand wove thread after thread into the growing web.

Odin, looking down from his lofty throne, saw the busy weaver, and quickly calling Thor, the strongest, and Kvaser, the keenest of the gods, was soon on the journey to Loki's home among the mountains. Loki was so busy with his net that he did not see them until they were close at hand; then he sprang up, threw the net into the fire, and running to the river changed himself into a salmon, and dove deep into the still waters. When the gods entered the house Loki was nowhere to be found, but the sharp-eyed Kvaser found the half-burnt net among the glowing embers. He pulled it out and held it before Odin and Thor.

"I know what it is," he said in a moment; "it is a net for fishing; Loki was always a fisherman. Then, as if the thought had suddenly come to him, he added, "He has changed himself into a fish and is hiding in that river."

Odin and Thor were rejoiced to find their enemy so close at hand, and they all began to work on the half-burnt net and quickly finished it. Then they went softly down to the water, threw it in, and drew it slowly up the stream from shore to shore.But Loki swam between two large stones in the bed of the stream and the net only grazed him as it passed over. The gods finding the net empty hung a great stone on it, and, going back to the starting place, drew it slowly up stream again. Never, since the beginning of things, had there been such fishing before!

The noisy river rolled swiftly down to the sea, the steep mountains rose on either side and shut out the sun so that even at mid-day it was like twilight. When Loki saw the net coming a second time and found that he could not escape, he waited until it was close at hand, and then with a mighty leap shot over it and plunged into a waterfall just where the river rushed into the sea.

The gods saw the great fish leap into the air and fall into the water, and they instantly turned around and dragged the net toward the sea, Thor wading after it in the middle of the stream. As the net came nearer and nearer Loki saw that he must either swim out into the sea or leap back again over the net. He waited until the shadow of the net was over him, and then with a mighty leap shot into the air and over the net; but Thor was watching, and his strong hand closed round the shining fish. Loki managed to slip through Thor's fingers, but Thor held him by the tail, and that, as the story goes, is the reason why the salmon's tail is so thin and pointed.

Then the gods, glad at heart that they had caught the slayer of Balder, changed Loki into his natural shape and dragged him to a cavern in the mountains near at hand, where they fastened three great rocks, having pierced them first with holes. Loki's two fierce sons, Vale and Nare, they also seized, and changed Vale into a wolf, and immediately he sprang upon his brother and devoured him. Then the gods bound Loki, hand and foot, to the great stones, with iron fetters, and, to make his punishment the more terrible, they hung a serpent over him, which moment by moment through ages and ages dropped poison on his face.

Loki's wife, Sigyn, when she saw his agony, stood beside him and caught the venom in a cup, as it fell drop by drop; but when the cup was full and she turned to empty it, the poison fell on Loki and he writhed so terribly that the whole earth trembled and quaked. So Loki was punished, and so he lay, chained and suffering, until the last great battle set him free.

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Old 12-17-2012, 10:02 PM   #8 (permalink)

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First Aett
The first aett is Freya's, the aett of the nurturer: the mother, the farmer, and the merchant. It is also the aettir of the first degree and shows this in its structure. The runes set three pairs of opposites which are fairly typical of the kind of test/choice early students face in initiatory training.

: cattle
Phonetic equivalent: f
Color: Green (Brown)
“Every beginning has within it the seeds of its own end.”
Prosperity, money, wealth, concern with physical and financial needs, goals, promotion, self-esteem, centeredness, karma.

For money, business, promotion, finding a job, achieving a goal, starting new enterprises.

Mobility, luck, charisma, dynamic power, liquid and mobile transferable energies, abundance, and circulation.

Freyr, Brisingamen, Gullveig, Dwarfs, Sigurd & the Otter's Gold.

Fehu is both the day-to-day reality of our lives and the catalyst that awakens us to what lies beyond. It is whatever we think we are seeking, which frequently bears no resemblance to what we will eventually find. It is also our home, for after all our wanderings we will still need to attend to our physical needs and ground ourselves in the simple pleasures of home, family, and good work. Oz might be a fun place to visit, but after a while all you really want to do is go back to Kansas.

Fehu reminds us that we must be secure in our physical situation before embarking upon any spiritual journey. We all must begin with the mundane reality of our lives, although many people never get beyond this. In many ways, we have become as domesticated as the cattle, living our day to day existence without wanting or even being aware of anything more being possible. The first step in breaking away from this situation is to catch a glimpse of what is possible, without dwelling on what security we may lose to attain it.

Wealth and success will soon arrive. Long hours of hard work which took place in the past which will soon be rewarded. Wealth is always fluid and changing, but Fehu's appearance usually signifies an upswing in business affairs and earnings. Carried with the rune Fehu is the warning to apply these new earnings to things that have solidity and permanence once they arrive. The fluidity of the earnings which are referenced here also reminds us that wealth slip easily through one's fingers. Caution and restraint must be exercised.

Fehu also represents the attachment and sense of self-worth that one can obtain from wealth. It represents the dreams and goals that the individual has mapped out. When Fehu turns up, these dreams may be coming close to realization.

Fehu also refers to the economics of relationships; not just debts in the financial sense of the term. The appearance of this rune is an indication that there may be personal debts outstanding. Was there a promise made that needs to be kept and has been long-standing? If so, one should start down the road of making amends, as Fehu signifies that repayment must occur imminently.

Wealth is also power -- the rune frequently refers to power (and the exercise of power) that comes with success on the material plane.

Inverted Meaning :: The dark side of wealth is referenced here. Inverted, Fehu's wealth is not lost, but the individual will likely experience the down-side of this wealth. Money may corrupt, or friends may ask one for money and then deny their friendship when their requests are refused. The appearance of the inverted Fehu serves as a reminder to manage one's own wealth and possessions effectively, rather than letting them assume control on their own.
Money, like power, can be used for both good and bad. It carries with it both positivity and negativity. Fehu reversed is a reference to money's more negative aspects.
Uruz : aurochs (like a wild ox)
Phonetic equivalent: u
Color: Orange (Dark Green)
“Mind over matter – matter over mind”
energy, passion, vitality, instinct, wildness, fertility, the unconscious, primitive mind, irrationality, shamanic experience, rite of passage.

to strengthen the will, increase energy; for hunting.

Vital formative force, archetypal patterning, raw primal power, survival, healing, endurance, manifestation, and organic structuring.

Ullr, Loki, Odin (as shaman)

The aurochs was a species of wild ox, similar to a longhorn bull, that was once found all over Europe, but which became extinct sometime in the 17th. century. They were said to be slightly smaller than elephants, and had horns as long as six feet, which were highly prized by the Germanic as drinking horns. This may or may not have been an exaggeration. Paintings of aurochs have been found in Neolithic caves, and it is believed that the aurochs hunt had some significance as a rite of passage for a boy entering manhood. The aurochs is the epitome of the wild animal, as opposed to the domesticated cattle represented by fehu.

Uruz is the rune of the God of the sacred hunt and his shaman/priest. Following the kind of mundane, day to day survival represented by fehu, it is the first recognition by mankind of the divine in nature, and his first attempt to control it through the use of sympathetic magic. It also represents an awareness of death and our own mortality, which may well be the only thing which truly distinguishes us from other animals. The energy of this rune is raw, powerful, and distinctly masculine, in the sense that it is pure, elemental fire. The boy who has killed the aurochs has just entered manhood, and has therefore been initiated into the first level of the mysteries - the awareness that the source of life is death.

This rune represents raw physical power. It would not be uncommon for it to turn up in readings for an athlete, hunter, or a member of the military. Uruz also represents virility -- most commonly (but not exclusively) the male side of this attribute. It may also represent a show of force which is unusually great for a specific individual.

Its appearance often signals a significant internal life change if the individual involved in a rune reading is a man; or a shift in his masculine powers, depending on his age. If the individual in a rune reading is female, it represents a man that is about to affect her life somehow, most likely in reference to a romantic or physical relationship. It also refers to all of those aspects considered masculine that are still present in the female, such as athleticism and competitiveness.

It may also refer to the abuse or overuse of those powers -- if the individual is an athlete, they may need to change their routine in order to avoid a sports injury. Competitiveness may be getting in the way of advancement. Restraint may be suggested here.

Overall, Uruz refers to great strength, athleticism, virility, and the employment of all of these things. It may also indicate that subtlety and inaction are both poor choices at this juncture.

Inverted Meaning :: A weakening of one's physical or emotional self. Someone may be trying to use the individual's own power against them. Watch out for energy-sapping situations and people; they are present when this rune is inverted.
žurisaz : giant
Phonetic equivalent: th (as in 'thing')
Color: White
“If we must fight for peace then let us find our peace in battle.”
hardship, painful event, discipline, knowledge, introspection, focus.

Aid in study and meditation, self-discipline, clearing out a bad situation.

Enthusiasm, self-empowerment, chaos, active defensive force, breaker of resistance, and destructive storms.

Thor, The Frost Giants, Loki.

Žurisaz is the first of the 'obstacle' runes. These obstacles are not necessarily destructive things, but are placed in our path to strengthen and teach us. After all, you can't have a mythic hero without dragons to slay or giants to fight!

The lesson of this rune is 'to learn you must suffer', meaning not only literal suffering, but also in the biblical sense of 'allowing' - allowing one's destiny to unfold as it should, and allowing one's self to experience all that life offers us. What may at first appear to be a negative, destructive event, may well turn out to contain an important lesson. The Giants may seem to be evil and destructive to the Aesir, but they bring about change, and eventually clear the way for a new age.

Thurisaz is the sacrifice that one must make in order to make progress in life. It is the very essence of discipline. This rune references the pain that must be endured for the reward that lies at its end. It may be likened to a long period of study that lies before the start of a satisfying career. A painful lesson learned. Monetary hardship, a temporary separation, or anything that requires a personal sacrifice to "get through" to the other side of the situation.

Thursiaz represents harsh outside forces which stand in opposition -- particularly natural forces or forces on a larger scale.

On the positive side, Thurisaz also signifies discipline and the necessity of change: Things that are happening are meant to happen. They are part of the grand cycle of life and nature. Those things that we are forced to endure will pave the way for good things in the future.

Inverted Meaning :: Being too resistant to change and not dealing with adversity. Seeing only the short term of a situation, not the long term. One should take care to understand the hardships that one is dealing with -- don't ignore them as they may become larger problems later.
Ansuz : Odin
Phonetic equivalent: a (as in 'fall')
Color: Purple
“Find your ears before you search for words.”
Authority figure, leader, mind & body balance, justice, shaman, clairvoyant.

For wise decisions, success, leadership; to help in divination and magic.

sovereign ancestral god, animating spirit, breath, communication, exploration, order, answers.


This rune represents the instinctive, primal energy of uruz tempered with the discipline and experience of žurisaz. These elements are combined in the personage of Odin, who exhibits the characteristics of both chieftain and shaman - a god of wisdom as well as war. Odin is also a shaman, traveling between the worlds on his eight-legged horse, Sleipnir.

Ansuz is a balanced rune. As with fehu, many people choose to remain at this point in their journey. It represents power, both secular and magical, and this power can be quite seductive. Odin has learned the lessons of the first three runes, thus gaining the wisdom to rule wisely, but this is really only another beginning. He has only gained temporal power, and has only a few of the tools he will need to perfect himself spiritually. There is a certain lack of compassion and perspective in this rune. Odin sits high above his world, looking down and making decisions, but he doesn't yet have the capacity to really care about or understand his people or himself. He still needs that emotional connection to become a truly great leader.

Usually Ansuz signifies an authority figure in the life of the individual, such as an employer, teacher, or parent. Whoever this figure may be, they are about to facilitate a positive life-changing event for the individual. One may look forward to a promotion or bonus due to excellent work. A book may be written, a great work composed, a long-standing problem may be solved creatively. Whatever this achievement is, assistance will be received from someone well qualified to give it.

Ansuz may also reference a highly creative person, or a creative solution to a long-standing problem.

Ansuz can also represent a spiritual teacher or leader, such as a priest, that will act as a guide for the individual on their spiritual and emotional journey. To many, Ansuz is seen literally as the communication method of the word of the divine -- it is Odin's Stave, or wand. A message of guidance, creation and growth.

Inverted Meaning :: The authority figures seemingly impede progress -- although this is likely only a perception. The appearance of this rune inverted suggests a resistance to genuine assistance. Perhaps someone is not recognizing help when it is offered. Don't bite the hand that feeds and guides. There is wisdom in your immediate circle of contacts -- but first it must be invited and accepted.
Raidho journey / Wheel, Cartwheel (or Riding).
Phonetic equivalent: r
Color: Blue (Black)
“The journey is the destination.”
journey, pilgrimage, change, destiny, quest, progress, life lessons.

protection for travelers, to ease or bring about change, to reconnect.

Cosmic cyclical law, rhythm, presence (active).

the Norns, Sigurd's journey

Raišo represents the path of a person's life and how it intersects and interacts with other paths. In Norse mythology, these paths are seen as threads of fate, and are regulated by the Norns. The Norns are three sisters who live near the first root of Yggdrasil, which they tend with the water from the well of Wyrd. They also spin the fates of Gods and men, which is important when understanding the mechanism of runic divination and magic.

The complex network of relationships formed by these threads of fate can be thought of as a web. Every chance encounter forms another connection in the web, and by tugging on one thread you affect everything else in the system. Most people do this completely unconsciously, but by becoming aware of the pattern of the threads surrounding you, it becomes possible to recognize and follow up on the kind of catalytic events that seemed to happen to us randomly back at fehu. In this way, we can find our way more easily along the path of our own journey, thus deriving the greatest benefit from its lessons. Otherwise we tend to get distracted and end up on detours and dead ends.

Raišo reminds us that, although it may seem that we have accomplished our goals at ansuz, life and change continue and we must always go on. We will eventually end up where we began, but on a higher level and with a better perspective. The journey never really ends.

In a reading, a physical journey is likely when Raidho appears. This journey will likely be successful and will lead to a important changes in one's life. A move or a career change is foretold. New experiences and insights await us over the horizon, and will shape the course of our lives.

As with the lesson of the three Norns, the appearance of Raidho also suggests that all efforts to influence the situation (one way of the other) will likely fail. The hands of fate are at work here -- fortunately the indication is largely positive.

Raidho may also represent a change in lifestyle -- usually for the better.

At a literal level, Raidho may represent women, sisters or a career path.

Inverted Meaning :: Journeys may often just be detours off of one's primary path, not part of our primary life journey. Moves and career changes can also mean disruptions in personal relationships, and these must be maintained in order to remain a whole person. Failure to move on will cause stunted growth.
Kenaz torch
Phonetic equivalent: c (as in 'candle')
Color: Yellow
“The student surpasses the teacher.”
Wisdom, insight, solution to a problem, creativity, inspiration, enlightenment.

For creative inspiration, aid in study, fertility, dispelling anxiety and fear.

Controlled energy, transformation (phoenix fire), teaching/learning dynamic, illumination.

Mimir, the Dwarfs, Muspellheim

In modern usage, the Scottish 'ken' means to know or understand, and this is the sense in which the rune should interpreted. Today, light, inspiration and knowledge are often associated, as in 'gaining enlightenment' and 'shedding light on the problem', and even in the image of a light bulb going on over someone's head when they get an idea. To bring light is to make the invisible visible.

Unlike the wisdom gained at žurisaz, kenaz only allows us to take bits and pieces of this knowledge away with us as we need it, usually at the discretion of the Gods. This knowledge will generally come in the form of a sudden inspiration, and we will be able to see clearly the answer that was once hidden from us. This form of wisdom is more closely associated with the right half of the brain than the left, since it does not come through conscious effort but rather through passively opening one's self to it. Thus, a more feminine element is added to our journeyer's experience.

The act of bringing light into the darkness is also a creative one. Again consider the image of the person carrying a torch , representing the masculine elements of fire and air, entering the cave and penetrating the feminine realm of earth and water. This joining of masculine and feminine elements results in the creation of new ideas. In physical terms, this can be correlated to the application of fire to mold and shape matter - the art of the smith.

A solution to a long-standing issue. Clarification will come after a long struggle -- the solution will seem simple after the long struggle that has led up to it. Inspiration and the light of knowledge will pave the way for success in the current venture.

A sudden insight or enlightenment. A moment is coming when someone will realize their purpose, their entire reason for being. Something (or someone) will light the way to this path.

Enlightenment and clarity do not come without sacrifice. There is often a price to pay for solutions and knowledge. It will not be grievous but it will require that the individual give something up that is precious to them. Knowledge, like the apple of the book of Genesis, may carry a steep cost.

Inverted Meaning :: A flame is being darkened somewhere in the individual's life. A source of inspiration is petering out. The individual should take care that they are not giving up on their dreams -- which could lead to a cooling of their life spark and spiritual suffering. Do not be so quick to let go of a dream.
Gebo gift
Phonetic equivalent: g (as in 'girl')
Color: Gold & Silver (Red)
“For every gift a curse.”
Gift, offering, relationship, love, marriage, partnership, generosity, unexpected good fortune.

To find or strengthen a relationship, for fertility, to mark a gift or offering, to bring luck.

Exchanged powers, sacrifice, dissolution of barriers through gifting.

Sigurd & Brunhild; Aesir & Vanir treaty

Gebo is a rune of connection, particularly the connections between people. Up until now, our journey has been a solitary one. This rune represents those places where our path intersects with others, and allows us to begin to form conscious relationships. Such relationships are strengthened and sanctified by the exchange of gifts.

The use of the gift as a symbol of an oath or a bond is an ancient one. When a lord wanted to ensure the loyalty of one of his subjects, he would give that person a gift. The gift would create a debt on the part of the person receiving it, and this debt would ensure his readiness to serve his lord. Similarly, a gift given between lovers, especially that of the ring, symbolizes the bond between them. Originally, only the man gave the ring in a marriage for much the same reason as the lord giving gifts to his vassals, but today the arrangement is usually more equitable. Gifts or offerings given to the Gods often carry the same meaning, representing the giver's love for or loyalty to their Gods. The giving of a gift implies the acceptance of a debt with the understanding that the debt will not be repaid.

A gift will be given, or possibly a marriage proposal or an opportunity to put forward such a proposal is on its way. A generous, bountiful person who wishes to enrich one's life, romantically or materially.

A divine gift, the gift of life or of balance. It is important that all parties remain equitable when the gift is given, or that balance which is so important to relationships may be endangered.

Inverted Meaning :: Gebo cannot be inveted.
Wunjo glory
Phonetic equivalent: w
Color: Pink (Blue)
“Great minds think alike, though fools seldom differ.”
“Be careful what you wish for…”
Success, recognition of achievements, reward, joy, bliss, achievement of goals, contentment.

For success in any endeavor, to motivate, to complete a task.

Harmony of like forces, effortless ease, fellowship, fulfillment, wishing, genuine friendship.

Baldr, Asgard

Wunjo is the last rune of the first aett, and thus represents both the end of one cycle and preparation for the next. It is a very positive, stable rune, and is another place where people tend to get stalled along their journey. Christian poets related it to heaven, but in fact it more closely resembles the Pagan Valhalla, since this particular paradise is not a permanent one.

Like the wealth of fehu, the glory of wunjo is only an illusion. We have achieved success on one level only, and there are many more lessons to be learned. It is, however, a welcome respite which allows us to rest, re-charge our batteries and prepare ourselves for the rest of the journey. It also gives us some perspective, allowing us to look back and reflect on the road thus far. Wunjo gives us a glimpse of what is possible, but if we try too soon to reach out and grab it, like the Grail it will disappear between our fingers.

Success and achievement of a goal. The attainment of desire, possibly a person, a monetary desire, or otherwise. Fantasies are soon to be fulfilled when this rune appears. One must be careful that the desires in this rune do not give rise to an obsessive nature.

Too much focus can be placed on the end goal rather than the means of achieving it. The appearance of this rune may indicate a need to stop and reassess -- to take measure of the object of one's pursuits. Wunjo reminds us that some fantasies are best left to the realm of fantasy.

Cautionary notes aside, Wunjo is a rune of great happiness and deserved celebration. It is an indication to enjoy all that it has to offer. Success and the true rewards of a job well done.

Wunjo may also indicate a conflict that has not yet occurred -- but will prove beneficial -- and ultimately result in victory, joy and material gain.

Inverted Meaning :: A goal takes longer to reach than was expected. A journey towards a goal is painful. The need to try harder in order to realize one's dreams. There is a definite need to reassess the end goal and ensure that it is the right one when one sees Wunjo inverted.

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Old 12-17-2012, 10:13 PM   #9 (permalink)

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Hogwarts RPG Name:
Ilya Belrose
First Year
Dalliesa | Ab-Bot | Hogwarts Trojan War |

Second Aett
Heimdall's aett is also what books call it. Heimdall is sometimes thought of as a god of silence, which might seem like priestly meditation to some. He, in conjunction with Loki, forms a special description of the world. Loki is a shapeshifter, as dunes change shape. He steals, as erosion steals topsoil or land. Yet he brings the gods their greatest treasures (usually of gold), as erosion reveals alluvial gold or other items. Heimdall is the watcher against this. He is associated with goats because they live on the cliffs identified with him. He is identified with sea cliffs because they are seen as Heimdall watching for Loki's arrival. His horn is the waves crashing against the surf, the sound heard throughout the nine worlds.

hagalaz Hail, Hailstone
Phonetic equivalent: h
Color: Blue (White)
“Don’t try to fix what we should break before it breaks us.”
Sudden loss, ordeal, destruction, disaster, clearance, testing, karmic lesson, drastic change.

Removing unwanted influences, breaking destructive patterns.

Power beyond human ability to harness, perfect pattern, seed formation, objective confrontation, destructive natural forces, chaos.

Ragnarok, Loki, Frost Giants

The idea of the destruction of the old being necessary to the growth of the new, as contained in the Norse myth of Ragnarok, is essential to our understanding of this rune. Interestingly enough, hagalaz lies between kenaz (fire) and isa (ice), reminding us of the Norse creation myth and the creative potential that lies between these two opposites, even though their meeting may seem at first to be destructive. Like the Tower in the Tarot, hagalaz is only a negative rune if we choose to view it in that way, and refuse to learn its lessons. Appearing as it does at the beginning of the second aett, it marks both a beginning and an end, and knocks us out of the safety and complacency of wunjo. It represents what a friend of mine used to refer to as the 'flying ladle syndrome' - that whenever things appear to be going too well, you can expect a good, healthy whack in the head from the Fates, just to make sure you're paying attention.

These sorts of 'wake-up calls' from the Gods will happen frequently throughout a person's life, but are often misinterpreted as divine punishment for some imagined wrong when in fact they are merely a way of drawing your attention to a recurrent pattern in your life. Unfortunately, these types of events have a tendency to repeat themselves with greater and greater severity until the lesson is learned and the pattern is broken. For example, someone who needs to break their dependency on a certain type of person will find themselves in relationships with such people over and over again with more and more disastrous results until they recognize the pattern as emanating from themselves and break it willingly.

The appearance of Hagalaz is often an indication that we must let go of the past. Only through the destruction of certain psychological aspects, emotional blocks, and ties to the past can we move forward. While Hagalaz represents destruction, it also represents rebirth. That which currently exists may need to be destroyed in order for positive change to occur. Frequently it is a fear of destruction and loss which prevents future growth.

Hagalaz may also indicate that a temporary setback or obstacle has arisen -- one which the individual will necessarily get over very quickly. Disappointment may also be indicated here, and a realization that the path that one has set out on is not the path that one is meant to be on. Hagalaz reminds us that such disappointment is a necessary first-step in achieving change. A need to refocus and retask one's energies.

While the main lesson of this rune is positive, it must be cautioned that a setback will happen for a reason, and it is important not to let history repeat itself. An opportunity will come in which one can better oneself. It may be painful, but ultimately it will prove beneficial.

Other possible literal meanings of Hagalaz in a reading include bad weather, or emotional outbursts.

Inverted Meaning :: Cannot be inverted.
Naudhiz need, necessity
Phonetic equivalent: n
Color: Black (Blue)
“Consciousness is the Necessity.”
“That which does not destroy me makes me stronger.” – Nietzsche
Poverty, hardship, responsibility, discontent, obstacle, frustration.

To represent a need to be filled.

Necessity, coming forth into being, urgency.

Freyr & Gurd, the Otter's Gold

If hagalaz is a flying ladle, then naužiz is the empty pot. It is a gentle, nudging reminder that all is not as it should be. Life appears to be out of synch, and nothing seems to be going right. No matter how much you have, it is never enough, and there is an ever present desire for something more, something better. On the positive side, this dissatisfaction with the status quo can serve to draw one away from the relative safety of wunjo and motivate towards change.

Naužiz represents an imbalance between one's desires and one's assets. How you resolve this situation will influence the rest of the journey, but the awareness of the imbalance itself can also be illuminating. It causes you to closely examine and perhaps reassess your values and priorities, and forces you back onto the path of your own happiness. Perhaps mythologist Joseph Campbell said it best when he enjoined us to 'follow our bliss'; in other words, that we will know that we are on the right track spiritually when we are doing those things which make us the most happy and fulfilled. Naužiz helps us to take the first step on that path by letting us know when we have strayed from it.

Something is desired or lacking by the querent. Without fulfilling this need, forward motion will be difficult and unpleasant.

Material need or sometimes impoverishment, whether real or imagined may also be described here. The exact meaning of such impoverishment may be different for different people; for one person, poverty may mean one car in the family instead of two. For another, it may mean no food for a week. Whatever the definition, the result is the same: a degradation of life-quality through a shortage of something. Rectifying this situation will requires either diligence and intelligence in order to improve the situation. A managing of one's desires may also be called for.

An alternate meaning of Nauthiz is a purely spiritual yearning for some greater level of enlightenment: a need created by spiritual impoverishment or a withering of the soul. In some cases Nauthiz represents a semi-permanent state of spiritual dissatisfaction, or one who is eternally dissatisfied despite material and emotional plenty.

It should be noted that while many see Nauthiz as a negative rune, depicting a shortage or a lack of something -- others see Nauthiz as a positive challenge -- a test that must be overcome to achieve the object of one's desire.

Inverted Meaning :: There are those who believe that Nauthiz cannot be reversed -- and others who say that it can. With this particular rune, this decision must be made by the reader based upon the nature of the reading. A possible Inverted Meaning: is as follows: The shortage is at it's worst and the only way from here is up -- bear this in mind during the coming struggles. Strong character is forged through difficult situations like this -- and fortunes made. Some of the most successful and enduring people achieved greatness because they underwent extreme hardships at some point in their lives.
Isa ice
Phonetic equivalent: i (ee as in 'eel')
Color: Brown (Black)
“Ice only appears to stop a river’s flow.”
Inactivity, blockage, stagnation, potential, patience, reflection, withdrawal, rest.

To stop a process; to represent primal form.

Stillness, contraction, stasis.

Aušumla, Nifelheim

In modern symbology, fire is generally masculine and ice (or earth) is feminine, but it is unknown whether the Norse shared this association. Certainly, ice was a constant factor in their day to day lives. It threatened their crops and their ships almost throughout the year, but it also served as a symbol of creation, from which all life will eventually spring. It says something about the Norse mind that they could recognize the need to have such a seemingly destructive joining of elements in order to create and maintain life. Fire may be warm and pleasant, but it must be balanced by the freezing of winter just as birth must be balanced by death. Even the little death of sleep has been proven to be vital for our mental and physical well-being.

Isa encompasses all of these ideas, but primarily represents a period of rest before activity, and itself forms the material from which life can be created. It is matter, inert by itself, but transformed into the stuff of stars when wedded with energy. It is the immovable form acted upon the irresistible force. In many ways, the Norse predicted Einstein with their version of the creation of the universe, recognizing that everything in their world contained both fire and ice (energy and matter), and that the relationship between the two defined the processes of life itself.

A time of rest before action. A period of meditation and recharging before action is continued. It may be necessary to stop, take measure and look around in order to further assess a situation, rather to charge forward without direction. When the ice thaws it will retreat from the land and one's direction will become clear.

A time of fertile creation lies ahead. While the pace of forward movement may seem slow and inhibited at this time, the seeds of rebirth are active beneath the surface. The outward appearance of purity and stillness mask an explosion of fertility which lies ready in wait. All things will come in good time, and for now Isa reminds us that we must wait. The long winter is upon us now, but the cycle of seasons moves ever forward.

Also a path of reflection and meditation. Inner calmness must be maintained at this time in order for deeper reflection to occur.

Inverted Meaning :: Isa cannot be inverted.
Jera year, harvest
Phonetic equivalent: y (but may be used in place of 'j')
Color: Brown
“Patience up to a point. Know your time, but work your wyrd always.”
Change, cycle turning, reward, motion, productivity, inevitable development.

To bring change; for fertility and growth.

Good harvest, orbits, cycles, progress, biorhythms, right effort.

Sif, Thor, Freyr, Granni.

In this modern age of central heating and oranges in February, it is difficult to imagine the close ties that people once had with the cycles of the year, particularly in the more Northern climes. The changing seasons affected not only the weather, but also the day to day activities and even the diets of ancient peoples. Constant change was the norm, and the object was to become attuned with those changes, not to fight against them. An ancient farmer (or even some modern ones) wouldn't need to look at a calendar to tell him when to plant, or read a weather forecast to know when the snows were coming. The changing seasons were a part of his blood and bones, and his very existence depended on adapting to change.

Jera follows isa just as spring follows winter. The frozen stagnancy of ice is broken by the turning of the wheel, and things are once again moving along as they should. In fact, we have now broken out of the entire set 'negative' runes with which we began this aett. This has been accomplished not by fighting to escape the ice or railing against the unfairness of fate, but by learning from those experiences and simply waiting for the inevitable thaw. Jera is the communion wine - the product of the joining of opposites bringing life. Storms may come and go, but the sun is always there and life is generally pretty good. Enjoy it while you can.

Jera represents "change" -- most frequently positive change. This change is not the temporary reward of Wunjo, but a permanent reward after hardship, or series of hardships. Hard work is going to be rewarded. Retirement, a sabbatical, or a vacation may be referenced here. Everything is happening as it should happen, and the time is coming to enjoy it.

Jera may also represent that little extra push that one needs to finish a job -- that final motivation that sees a job through to its successful conclusion.

As with a successful harvest, Jera is a rune of material gain. It should be noted that Jera is a complementary rune to Gebo: if both runes turn up together, certain happiness in both relationships and money will occur.

Jera is often seen as a forward-looking rune which refers to an eventual positive resolution which will occur at some time in the future: Often this pertains to legal resolutions.

Other possible literal meanings of Jera in a reading are a large, well-attended meal or outdoor festivities.

Inverted Meaning :: Jera cannot be inverted.
Eihwaz yew
Phonetic equivalent: ei, “eo”, “ę”
Color: White (Green)
“The path is hard and lonely and there is no end to sight.”
Change, initiation, confrontation of fears, turning point, death, transformation.

To bring about profound change, to ease a life transition.

axis of heaven-earth-hel, secrecy, encoding, immortality.

Hel, Yggdrasil.

The yew tree has been associated with runes, magic and death in northern and western Europe since time immemorial. The reasons for this ancient association are numerous, but seem to principally derive from the fact that yews are evergreens which retain their greenery even through the death of winter, and because their red berries are symbolic of the blood of life. The yew is also extremely long-lived, thus effectively 'immortal'. Reverence for the yew dates back to before the times of the Celts, and continues today in Christian tradition. Eihwaz is the thirteenth rune in the fužark, and marks the middle of the alphabet. (It is interesting to note that the Death card in the Tarot is also the thirteenth card.) This rune is the turning point in the runic journey, and represents the transformation phase of the initiatory process. All rites of passage, particularly those marking the transition into adulthood, contain the symbolism of death, the idea being that one's former 'self' has died and given birth to a new persona. Eihwaz is the passage through which we must enter the realm of Hel in order to gain the knowledge and acceptance of our own mortality, as well as those mysteries which can only be learned from the dark Lady of the dead. The process is a truly frightening one, but it is something we all must go through if we are to confront our deepest fears and emerge with the kind of wisdom that cannot be taught but must be experienced. Eihwaz is the gateway to this wisdom, and lies between life (jera) and rebirth (perž).

A major and necessary life change may be about to take place; either the onset of adulthood, going away to college, marriage, retirement or a change in profession. This change may seem full of uncertainty when it is first introduced, but it will become clear very quickly that such change is necessary.

A significant confrontation with one's inner fears and innermost insecurities may be at hand. While 'change' is a constant process, the appearance of Eihwaz indicates an increase in the speed and intensity of change.

Change comes in many forms: mental, spiritual and physical. It is important to keep one's focus clear throughout the process: some change should be accepted as it is necessary and just. Other change may require a steadfast resolve and hardiness -- like the always green yew tree.

Through the trials of 'change' come growth and spiritual expansion. Resolve, flexibility and a focus on the importance of change will see one through the most difficult trials.

Eihwaz may also reference the need to address a problem well in advance, before it becomes serious.

Other possible literal meanings of Eihwaz in a reading are positive health, nature or the season of winter.

Inverted Meaning :: None.
Perthro dice-cup
Phonetic equivalent: p
Color: Blue (Red)
“The beginning and end are set. What’s in between is yours. Nothing is in vain, all is remembered.”
Rebirth, mystery, magic, divination, fertility, new beginning, prophecy.

Fertility, easing childbirth, to aid in divination and magic, enhancing psychic abilities.

Evolutionary force, luck, nothingness, the unborn, the unmanifest.

Freya, Angrbode

The actual interpretation of perž has been the subject of much controversy among runic scholars. The problem lies in the fact that the initial P sound doesn't occur anywhere else in the old Germanic language, leading to the belief that the word was imported from another language. The Old English rune poem seems to indicate that it had to do with some sort of game, leading many to interpret it as 'chess pawn' or 'dice-cup'. The dice-cup meaning is particularly interesting as it not only fits the shape of the rune, but also hints at such an object's original use as a container for the runes themselves. An alternate interpretation of perž is derived from the Slavic 'pizda', meaning 'vulva'. This meaning (although obscure and somewhat unlikely) fits quite well into the progression of runes up until this point, symbolizing the rebirth that follows death. Viewing it as a symbol of the womb of the Goddess, it represents the same element of the mysterious and hidden as 'dice-cup', but taken literally as 'vulva', it adds a powerful, feminine counterpart to uruz that would otherwise be missing from the fužark.

However you choose to interpret the literal meaning of perž (and again, nobody really knows what that is), the basic symbolism is that of a vessel, nurturing and giving 'birth', keeping hidden and secret all those mysteries which can be uncovered only after the initiation of death. The rune is closely tied in with the idea of fate, that the road we travel, regardless of what we choose to do along the way, is pre determined from the moment of our birth. The very act of being born sets us along a course of cause and effect, action and reaction that we may choose to follow blindly, or try to divine through the runes or other means in order that we may better understand the lessons we will learn. Perž is the beginning of this process, as well as the tool for accomplishing it.

The cup of Perthro (perp) represents fertility, mystery, and all things hidden. The hand of fate, through Karma or divine predestination, is showing itself strongly in one's life. While fate is often complex and impossible to understand, this rune indicates a powerful order and purpose behind seemingly random events. Fate is both powerful and unknowable -- a force which we all must ultimately respect and give way to.

Intense forces of change that work behind the scenes are acting on the individual at this time. While these forces may be seen as positive or negative, the appearance of Perthro most commonly suggests positive forces -- unless of course it appears in a spread with a host of negative runes.

It should be noted that while we frequently view change as either "good" or "bad" -- Perthro reminds us that such black-and-white interpretation may represent an oversimplification of fate. The change referenced by Perthro carries with it an infinite amount of complexity and subtlety. To attempt to categorize change in simplistic terms of "positive" or "negative", is to attempt to understand fate itself: something no mortal can do. When analyzing the meaning of Perthro, one should take care to remember that fate exists at a level that we can never truly know until such time that it is upon us. What seems true may prove false, and vice versa. Only fate can tell.

Other possible literal meanings of Perthro in a reading are the act of drinking or games of chance.

Inverted Meaning :: There may be psychological issues present which the individual may need to explore further. This may not represent a readiness to explore hidden mysteries further, but a burning desire that is not accompanied by the wisdom of experience. Tread carefully, missteps are costly here.
Algiz protection
Phonetic equivalent: x, z
Color: Black (Purple)
“Fear has its place in every heart. Courage is only a response.”
Protection, assistance, defense, warning, support, a mentor, an ethical dilemma.

For protection, hunting.

Protective teaching force, the divine plan.

Heimdall, Gjallerhorn

Heimdall is an interesting and mysterious figure in Norse mythology, and I associate him with the rune algiz because of his role as protector and guardian. He is the watcher at the gate who guards the boundaries between the worlds and who charges all those entering and leaving with caution. He is best known for his famous horn, but his sword is also important in the consideration of this rune. Snorri mentions that the poetic name for a sword is 'Heimdall's head', and the poetic name for a head is 'Heimdall's sword'. This is particularly significant if we consider that one form of his name was 'Heimdali', meaning 'ram'. Through the image of the ram, Heimdall's sword and his horn can be seen as two different sides of the same image. Both the sword and the ram's horns (or the elk's antlers) are symbols of power which may be used for either offense or defense, depending on the situation.

In terms of the journey, we have passed through death and rebirth, and must now face the Guardian before returning to our world. It is he who charges us to use our new-found power wisely. The person can no longer be simply concerned with their own personal development, but must now consider the effect that their actions may have on others. This is a crucial turning point, and the person will either choose to adopt a system of ethics or ignore the effect on others and only work to serve their own ends. Again, the sword is in their hands, but they must decide whether to use it for defense or offense.

As the best defense is often a good offense, this rune symbolizes protection in all of its forms; both offense and defense, proactive and reactive. The appearance of this rune indicates the presence of a threat, and a need to guard against something. Algiz signals that this protection may be expected from an outside source in a conflict that is either forthcoming or is already ongoing.

Algiz also refers to spiritual defenses and the act of drawing upon inner strength to actively protect our emotional well-being and our immediate surroundings. Referenced here is our own internal system of checks and balances that makes up our conscience: The soul reaching to the realm of the divine as an act of spiritual and physical protection.

The more esoteric meanings of this complex rune aside, at its most basic level it symbolizes protection and helpful "brawn". A threat is indicated, but the individual will come to no harm.

Inverted Meaning :: When inverted this rune is called "Ihwar", meaning "yew tree" or "yew bow". The reversed position indicates that the situation may call for more of a defense than originally thought -- one's guard is down, the sword and horn are being held downwards rather than being held up to the sky. Attacks must be anticipated and defenses are down.
Sowilo sun
Phonetic equivalent: s
Color: Yellow
“The guide leads you to the doorway, then waits for your return.”
Success, positive energy, increase, power, activity, fertility, health.

Energy, strength, success, healing, fertility.

Sun-wheel, cosmic energies, motivation, life-giving force, action.


The sun is held sacred by almost every religion in the world. Its light and warmth symbolize life and growth and all that is good. Norse cosmology describes the sun being driven around the heavens in a chariot and chased by a great wolf, which will devour it at Ragnarok. Throughout Indo-European Paganism, the sun has frequently been associated with the horse, often described as being carted around the sky by a horse. Both are symbolic of life and fertility, and are usually considered 'masculine' in polarity, although in Norse myth the chariot is driven by a girl. The swastika or sun wheel is a constant motif in rock carvings dating back to Neolithic times, and occurs throughout Europe and Asia. The sun rune itself is a variation on this symbol, and represents motion and energy.

Sowulo marks the end of the second aett, and like wunjo represents success and glory. However, unlike the rest and relaxation of Valhalla, the sun is very much an active symbol. We have reached the end of the aett successfully, and the conclusion is a positive one, but in this case we are fully aware of the changing and transient nature of the universe. We can see the wolf at our heels, and we know that we must move on. Here, though, the journeyer may pause briefly in the warmth and light of the sun, absorbing and applying its energy to the work ahead. This time we won't need to be blasted out of our safe position, but will rather choose to leave it in order to continue on the journey.

Success; a more permanent and lifelong success than the harvest time of Jera. Sowilo often refers to a dynamic, strong, steadfast, and charismatic personality. Energy, motivation, goodness, and all positive character attributes are referenced here. A very successful outcome is indicated, perhaps more successful than one had predicted. Sowilo is an extremely fortunate rune and is often considered the best possible rune in a reading.

Sowilo represents an endless source of energy and brilliance: a renewal of hope and achievement. If a project or endeavor is beginning to "drag on", Sowilo indicates a resurgence of positivity and progress.

Sowilo often references health issues and healing. The sun's rays offer vital healing energy, and the appearance of this rune often indicates a positive resolution to a health issue, or a time of successful recovery.

Other possible literal meanings of Sowilo in a reading are: a reference to Summer or bright lights.

Inverted Meaning :: Never with Sowilo.
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Old 12-17-2012, 10:16 PM   #10 (permalink)

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Third Aett
The aett of Tyr. Tir, in his original form of Tyr, was the head of the Germanic pantheon. His name comes from the same source as Jupiter (originally Deus Pitar) and Zeus. He was a sky god whose worship went back at least to the Bronze Age; we have carvings which show a one-handed figure who is taken to be a god. It is possible that his ancestry is much older than this. The rough outline of the Germanic mythic universe, a column or tree holding up a skull which is the sky, seems to go back to the days of the Neanderthal. In a Neanderthal cave, a stick on which rests a skull has been found. Surrounding the stick is a ring of stones. The stick relates to Yggdrasil, the world tree; the skull is the skull that is the sky. The stones can be compared to the Midgard serpent.

Teiwaz : Tyr, Creator.
Phonetic equivalent: t
Color: Green (Red)
“What is higher than the self is the Self become Higher.”
Duty, discipline, responsibility, self-sacrifice, conflict, strength, a wound, physicality, the warrior path.

Protection, victory, strength, strengthening the will, healing a wound.

Sovereign order, sacrifice, right decision making.

Tyr and the Fenris Wolf, Odin's ordeals

Just as the second aett began with the cleansing destruction of hagalaz, so too does the third aett begin with a loss. However, hail is imposed by the Gods to force the sacrifice of those things which aren't really vital to our development. Teiwaz, on the other hand, represents a voluntary sacrifice, made by someone who understands exactly what they are giving up and why.

Tyr's sacrifice of his hand to allow the binding of the Fenris Wolf was a noble one, and notable in a pantheon of deities not known for their sense of duty and ethical responsibility. He is believed to be one of the oldest of the Norse Gods - a Bronze-age rock carving was found in Scandinavia depicting a one-handed warrior - and his position may well have originally superseded that of Odin. Tyr's rune is also one of the oldest in the fužark, having survived virtually unchanged from the earliest Bronze-age carvings. It represents all those qualities associated with the God: strength, heroism, duty and responsibility. But it also represents a deeper mystery - that of the wounded God. Like žurisaz, the pain of teiwaz focuses the attention and forces discipline. However, in this case the effect is more conscious and the wound carries a greater significance. Uruz has been confronted and bound, and the lessons of teiwaz and hagalaz have been learned. This is the path of the warrior.

Ultimately, this is an extremely positive rune signifying victory in battle and success in competition. Direct action and powerful forward motion is indicated.

Sound leadership is often characterized by selflessness. A good leader places his people and his clan before his own needs. Management and leadership skills are referenced positively here. From a spiritual perspective, Tiwaz represents a spiritual breakthrough that awakens new levels of understanding.

It should be noted, that as with the warrior "Tyr", the success indicated by this rune often carries a painful price. It can literally foretell a minor injury, and may indicate a personal loss (or injury) accompanied by a great gain one's family, company or team.

The appearance of Tiwaz generally means that the proper direction of this force, usually in business, will net the individual a victory through proper application of force and pressure.

Inverted Meaning :: Progress through aggression may not be the answer in this particular situation. Find another way of achieving the desired outcome. Application of too much force will drive success away.
Berkana : birch
Phonetic equivalent: b
Color: White (Blue)
“The most obvious Truth is hidden deep within, and only you will ever know it.”
Fertility, health, new beginnings, growth, conception, plenty, clearance.

Healing (especially infections), achieving conception, making a fresh start.

Container/releaser, female fertility, trees and plantlife.

Frigg, Idunna

The birch is fundamentally a symbol of fertility. There are numerous instances in European folk tradition where birch twigs are used to bring prosperity and encourage conception. They were fixed above a sweetheart's door on May Day in Cheshire, England, and were placed in stables and houses to promote fertility. On the continent, young men, women and cattle were struck with birch twigs for this same purpose, and young boys would be sent out to "beat the bounds of the parish" with branches of birch to ensure prosperity in the coming year. Witches were said to ride broomsticks made from birch, an image which probably originated with fertility rituals where dancers would ride brooms through the fields, the height of their jumping indicating how high the grain should grow.

If teiwaz is the fundamental male mystery, then berkana certainly belongs to the women, for it represents the path of the mother, the healer and the midwife, bringing new life after death just as the birch puts out the first leaves after winter. While Tyr's wound is acquired through his encounter with death, berkana's wound is that of menstruation, and her ordeal is that of childbirth. The birch is abundant and all providing, and heals through nourishment, cleansing and empathy.

Either a pregnancy or a new start in a person's life is indicated here -- or the fertility of a new business venture. Berkana indicates a fresh perspective, a good start. Aside from a physical birth, a rebirth, or a burst of creativity may be indicated.

Berkana frequently refers to domestic issues and personal relationships -- particularly those involving emotional support, nurturing and "standing by" loved ones.

Berkana can also represent a person who is a healer, whether a nurse, doctor, or other kind of medical practitioner. The energies of this rune are healing and life-giving.

Inverted Meaning :: Growth is being stunted through a stubborn refusal to channel creative and healing forces. Learn to accept the rites of passage of life -- don't ignore them or they will just cause you more pain than necessary. Berkana inverted, can also signify friction within relationships -- or even betrayal.
Ehwaz : horse
Phonetic equivalent: e (as in 'egg')
Color: Red (White)
“The mind will trust the body, the body will trust the mind.”
Transportation, motion, assistance, energy, power, communication, will, recklessness.

Power, aiding in communication, transportation; to 'send' a spell.

Trust, cooperation, the fetch.

Sleipnir, Freya's feathered cloak

The horse has been a powerful symbol in nearly every culture and every age. They were often believed to draw the sun about the heavens. Strong, swift and loyal, their relationship with humankind is unique. They allow us to perform tasks that would normally be beyond our strength, and to travel distances that would normally be beyond our reach. The mare symbolizes fertility and fecundity, and the stallion is the epitome of virility and raw energy. It is an animal that never lost its power by being domesticated.

Like the sun which is its counterpart, ehwaz represents energy and motion. In this case, however, there is also respect for the source of the power to be considered. This is not merely an impersonal energy source - it is a living, breathing thing whose needs and desires must be taken into consideration, rather than be simply used as a slave. This is the power that was given by the God at algiz, and this rune reminds us of our oath to only use it to help, never to harm. Like the two-edged sword, the horse is a powerful tool, but must be carefully controlled to avoid harming yourself or other. It is tempting to just go barreling along recklessly, but to do so is to risk loosing that power forever. This is the balance that must be achieved on the path of pure magic.

Most simply put, Ehwaz symbolizes 'forward energy and movement'. Ehwaz may represent general travel and steady progress-- or it may literally represent a car, plane or another method of transportation. Ehwaz also symbolizes communication over long distances, and can refer to an important message that one will give or receive. Harmonious concord and pulling together as a team is also referenced here.

When Ehwaz appears in a spread, it empowers the runes around it and augments their meanings simply by virtue of its directional energy and forward movement. Teamwork, forward-motion, communication, and consistent drive will win the day when this rune turns up.

Inverted Meaning :: Blocked movement. An inability to act. The best solution at this point may be passivity, not action. A failure to communicate or act in unison.
Mannaz : man, humankind
Phonetic equivalent: m
Color: Blue (Purple)
Significator, self, family, community, relationships, social concerns.

To represent a specific person or group of people; to establish social relationships.

Psychic order of the gods reflected in humankind, projection of Self into time.

Ask and Embla, Midgard

In its broadest sense, mannaz represents all of humanity, and therefore the entire realm of Midgard. In more practical terms, though, it is those with whom we have personal connections, from our immediate circle of family and friends to the wider community around us, reminding us of our nature as social animals. It also represents our connection with the Gods and with nature, through the two Norse myths of the creation of humans; the first where they sprang from Ymir's body, and the second in which they were created from two logs by a river. It takes the raw energy of ehwaz and controls it through our social conscience, reminding us of those we affect with our deeds both magical and mundane.

The rune itself resembles gebo with its joining of masculine and feminine elements, but is much more complete. It is the entire web of human relationships, with the self at the centre, which mirrors the web of fate explored through raišo. But while that web was more or less fixed, this one is mutable and alive. Past and present, male and female, self and other - all opposites are joined here and made whole. Mannaz is our home, and speaks for all those whose lives we touch when we use the gifts we have been given through the runes.

Mannaz represents a group of people, most frequently the community immediately surrounding the individual -- and often references the ways in which that group perceives the individual in question. Friends are being made and a community is being formed and served. The individual is giving a part of themselves up for the greater good. If a reading deals with great tasks, the appearance of Mannaz often indicates that assistance will come from others.

This rune may also refer to a spiritual community, such as that of a church or a religious group of some kind; the individual may be interacting with this new community soon.

The appearance of Mannaz frequently signifies the intensification and betterment of the person's relationships with people and community. This often refers just to social relationships, rather than business or romantic relationships. The appearance of this rune suggests that the important factor may not necessarily be the individual doing the reading, but the people in his or her immediate sphere of contacts.

While many runes deal with the individual, Mannaz is a reminder to step back and consider a larger group -- the family or community. Mannaz also directly relates to an individual's place within a community, how he or she performs, and how he or she is perceived.

Inverted Meaning :: One must make peace with oneself before turning outward to focus on friends or community. Often we will seek community to heal a problem within ourselves that cannot be fixed from an outward source -- meditation and constructive self-reflection is required.
Laguz : water
Phonetic equivalent: l
Color: Black & White (Green)
“Our future selves call us from infinite pasts, and each night are eroded with our dreams.”
Emotions, fears, unconscious mind, things hidden, revelation, intuition, counseling.

Enhancing psychic abilities, confronting fears, stabilizing mental or emotional disorders, uncovering hidden things.

Life energy, ocean spirit, origins of life, collective unconscious, the astral plane, love as unity, evolution.

Njord, Midgard Serpent

When most people think of water, they generally think of its more pleasant associations - peacefulness, love, compassion, intuition, and the emotions in general. However, we must remember that, to the Norse, water most often meant the sea, and the sea was a terrifying, unpredictable place, home of the Midgard serpent and the grave of many sailors. Laguz, then, should be thought of in terms of the lighter and the darker sides of the element of water. It speaks to our primal fears of the dark, the cold, and all those terrifying things hidden deep within our subconscious minds.

Like eihwaz, which forced the journeyer to confront his or her mortality, laguz makes us examine the underlying roots of our personality and behavior, and allows us to modify those aspects which are hindering our spiritual development. The understanding and wisdom gained through eihwaz and the runes which followed have prepared the journeyer to face this darker side (represented by laguz) and accept it as an integral part of their selves. Laguz also prepares the person to take on the task of helping others through this self-examination process, allowing them to empathize more strongly and share their own experiences, making it (among other things) the rune of the spiritual counselor.

Laguz is typically a negative rune. It signifies uncertainty, and a powerlessness to act in the face of overwhelming opposition. If however, the question being asked is "Should I continue" with something, Laguz instructs very clearly to continue in the same way that water flows uninterrupted.

The appearance of Laguz suggests that something that has previously been hidden will be revealed. What was hidden may not be a pleasant thing to witness, but it will be necessary. This may allude to something like a treacherous spouse or a thieving employee -- unpleasant but necessary for the individual to uncover. Frequently this rune references how other people feel about the someone. Perception is indicated here.

i.e: It is necessary to uncover what is hidden in a person's life in order for them to move forward.

Other possible literal meanings of Laguz in a reading are: A woman (either the querent or a woman significant to the querent), the ocean or beach, social opposition.

Inverted Meaning :: An obstinate need to ignore that which is hidden and needs to be uncovered. The rune Laguz may turn up inverted when a spouse knows that their partner is cheating, but is doing nothing about it to maintain the status quo. The appearance of this rune inverted means that the status quo is not worth maintaining and they should remove themselves from the situation as soon as possible.
Inguz : Ing, Fertility
Phonetic equivalent: ng
Color: Brown (Black)
“Only when we know our solitude to be different from our loneliness
can we be whole enough to honor another’s place.”
Work, productivity, bounty, groundedness, balance, connection with the land.

Fertility, farming, growth, general health, balance.

Stored energy, gestation process, male mysteries, subtlety, planned bursts.

Freyr / Ing, Nerthus, Thor, the Vanir

Ing is a Danish / Anglo-Saxon name for Freyr, the God of agriculture and fertility. Agriculture represents one of the first attempts by mankind to control the environment, and the fertility of crops, animals and people has always been the primary concern and religious focus of most societies. From the earliest Sumerian accounts to modern-day British folk custom, people throughout history have sought to ensure the success of their crops.

The shape of this rune can be likened to that of a field, but its real significance may lie in its balance, representing the harmonious relationship between ourselves and the four elements / four directions. Inguz reminds us of that ancient connection between the Gods and the land, and re-links us with our spiritual natures through the realm of the physical. It is quite literally a grounding rune, and by reintroducing us to the earth, it reconnects our bodies, our minds and our spirits.

Ingwaz symbolizes the Earth and our deep relation to it. Its appearance may mean that we need to spend more time in nature, or pay more attention to the natural order of things. Outdoor activities are referenced here, including sports, hiking and the ocean.

The appearance of Ingwaz may also indicate a need to pay attention to one's body, either through the addition of an exercise regimen to one's life or a change in diet. A healthy metabolism and lifestyle are indicated here -- and may suggest a need to focus on a sound body in order to achieve a sound mind.

This is also a rune of growth: representing the actual act of growth rather than the rewards that await one at the end of the cycle. Personal growth may occur through some event in the near future.

On a grander level, Ingwaz can represent the wholeness of the Earth or of humanity. Overall human conditions, or global issues.

At a smaller scale, the appearance of Ingwaz may represent food or a meal with friends.

Inverted Meaning :: None.
Dagaz : day
Phonetic equivalent: d
Color: Yellow
“Time is an illusion that once realized, is lovingly embraced, none the less.”
Happiness, success, activity, a fulfilling lifestyle, satisfaction.

To bring a positive outcome.

Twilight/dawn polarity, non-dual reality, unity, synthesis, transmutation.

Sunna, Baldr, Nerthus, Yggdrasil

This rune effectively marks the end of the third aett, leaving only ožila to complete the cycle. As in the previous two aetts, šagaz concludes the third with light and hope. However, while wunjo represented earthly glories and the sun, heavenly power, the day brings these two realms together, bringing the more abstract light and power of sowulo 'down to earth' and applying it to our everyday lives.

The shape of the rune itself denotes this kind of interconnection. It is reminiscent of gebo, with its balance of masculine, feminine and the four elements, but šagaz makes further connections to the celestial and the realm of nature. Like inguz, it symbolizes harmony with one's environment. but again takes it a step further, implying a harmonious relationship with the spiritual environment as well. It is a bringing together of all six cardinal points - the four compass directions, the celestial realm above us where the Gods are thought to dwell; and that which is below - all the spirits of the earth and of nature. All of these things are balanced and integrated through šagaz and brought into our daily lives.

This very positive rune signifies a well-led life, an individual who is happy with themselves and their position in life. Balance has been achieved. Positive, good forces will be at work very shortly, because expectations have been managed and risks properly assessed.

Balance and harmony reign supreme -- events will soon take a turn for the better. One has already crossed through a place of darkness and now a new day dawns.

A major transformation either spiritual or material, is occurring as the first light of a new day breaks over the horizon. Possibilities are everywhere.

If some rare cases, if success in a matter has been at hand for a long period of time, Dagaz may indicate a change to that cycle -- a new day which brings with it fundamental shift to underlying expectations.

More literal references here can also be to a time of day (the early morning), and to new business endeavors, new relationships and new pursuits.

Inverted Meaning :: May not be inverted.
Othala : property, Home.
Phonetic equivalent: o
Color: Copper (Brown)
“We inherit ourselves.”
Property, land, inheritance, home, permanence, legacy, synthesis, sense of belonging.

For acquiring land or property, to complete a project, to strengthen family ties.

Ancestral spiritual power, inheritance, heaven on earth, “The gift of Ing”, paradise, utopia.

the nine worlds of Yggdrasil.

In ožila, we find ourselves back in the seemingly mundane realm of wealth and property, just like the first rune, fehu. However, while cattle represented a more movable, transitory form of wealth, the land (as Mr. O'Hara said) is the only thing that lasts. It can be passed on as a legacy, but more importantly, it defines who we are by defining where we are. It is, ultimately, our home.

This rune brings us to the seventh cardinal point, which is the centre. It is the meeting place between Midgard and Asgard; between ourselves and our Gods. It is the axis around which our lives revolve. The idea of land or property is only a symbol - we must all find our own "centre" (or, as Joseph Campbell termed it, our "bliss") to give our lives meaning, and this is really the ultimate goal of the runic journey. Like Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz, we discover that after all our travels and adventures, we all eventually end up going home. But this doesn't mean that the travels and adventures are pointless. On the contrary, it is only through those explorations that our 'home' or spiritual centre can have any real meaning for us. "There's no place like home" will have no power to send us there unless we come to truly understand what and where our home is to us. Conversely, none of the lessons learned along the way can be of any real use to us unless we actively integrate them into our 'mundane' lives and find that centre point to anchor them to. Ožila not only completes the smaller cycle of the third aett, but also brings us back to the beginning of the fužark itself, only on a higher level. We may now begin the grand cycle of the runic journey again.

The security and safety that comes with material wealth is referenced here: Richness in the sense of home and family, as well as material wealth. A favorable situation will give the individual greater security very shortly -- but hard work will always be required to maintain the fruits of this situation.

Othala may represent an individual who has overcome many obstacles and has now come home to put their feet up and enjoy their lives as they deserve to. This individual has come to a place in their lives where they have found success -- it is now time for them to recognize the importance of home and family and enjoy the fruits of both.

Wealth, property, and land are all considerations when this rune turns up, and all in a positive fashion.

Alternatively, Othala may represent an ancestral land, or the country of one's forebears.

Inheritance and history are powerfully referenced here.

Inverted Meaning :: Inability to accept family as a source of happiness in one's life. Chaos on the home front. Poverty and loss of land and/or wealth.
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Old 12-19-2012, 01:43 AM   #11 (permalink)

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Ancient Runes & Divination
Runes do not predict the future in the “fortune telling” sense, but it is an Oracle which gives counsel to the reader, offering an analysis to the problem, as well as possible outcomes and solutions on one’s spiritual path. As each Rune can have several meanings, which can easily appear cryptic and too broad, it is best to be specific in asking questions, using your intuition to let the Runes speak to you.
The Yes / No Cast
Used For: Questions that require a simple Yes or No answer.
Method: Take a moment to concentrate and ask your question as your left hand mixes the Runes inside (if you are left-handed, use your right). Pick a Rune out of the bag, turn it over immediately (so that it does not read inverted). If it is upright, the answer is a “Yes”, and reversed, means “No”.
Note: There are 8 Runes that read the same, whichever way they are turned. In this case, you may repeat the process up to three times to draw another rune which may be reversed. If you still keep on drawing one of these 8, it is simply not the time to receive the answer you seek. Let it be, and ask the question again at a different time.
Odin’s Rune or the One Rune Cast
Used for: This is a quick and easy way to get an answer to a specific question or a general picture of the situation. Some Rune casters also use this is as a daily meditation and inspiration, before beginning their day or at bedtime.
Method: Concentrate for a minute and ask the question. Then take a Rune out of the bag and place it on your cloth, any surface or in your hand.
The Roman Method Cast
Use: This is the earliest known method of Rune casting as described by the Roman Tacitus in “Germania”, A.D. 98. It is similar to the “Norns” casting, except for a few ritualistic details, which you can use for true authenticity. These are a white cloth on which to cast the Runes, and the use of runes from a fruit- bearing tree, carved fresh for the particular reading.
Method: Lay out the white cloth. Take the runes into your hands, and scatter them unto the cloth. Pick three randomly without looking at the runes, setting these aside. You may now interpret these as a group or in the same way as the Three Rune Method illustrated above.
The Nine Rune Cast
Use: Nine is a magical number in Norse Mythology, and this method gives more of a detailed analysis of the situation or problems facing the reader, and clarity in understanding the options open to them, as well as possible outcomes. However, this technique is better suited to those who have a sizable understanding of the Runes as this method is highly flexible in nature, meaning the way you read the positions is entirely up to you in terms of relevance. It would help to create some of your own rules for this type of reading (nothing too rigid though, as Rune readings are innately variable), which you can stick to every time you use this casting technique, for simplicity’s sake. Consistency is paramount.
Method: Concentrate on the situation or question you face, and feel the runes in the bag, choosing the nine Runes that feel right to you. Now, scatter the nine runes on a cloth, table, or whatever casting ground you are using. The Runes that appear “face up” are to be read first, as these signify the present circumstances and the dynamics that lead up to it. Generally, the runes that are in the center are of primary importance, while the ones in the edges could be influencing factors. But like we said, this is a personal technique, and rune casters have their own varying interpretations of this, which can change with every reading. This is a good time to get your journal out and note the first runes that came up, to avoid confusion. Next, start turning the rest of the Runes around, also taking note of each as they are read. These could signify the outside influences, the choices one has and the possible outcomes. Again, the pattern and order in which to interpret these Runes is up to you, but keep in mind that runes that are close together are usually associated with each other or connected in meaning.
Runes Spreads
1. Single Rune (beginner) 1 rune
Draw a single rune for insight into simple questions, issues or decisions facing the querent.
Results from single rune readings tend to be very broad overviews. Even for experts however, the single rune reading is often a good place to start before moving on to more complex rune spreads.
Single Rune
This rune gives a broad overview to the question or issue at hand. It may indicate an underlying theme, an area which deserves greater attention, or a future turn of events.
2. The Three Norns (intermediate) 3 runes
This easy to remember spread, consists of 3 rune stones.
In Norse mythology, the three Norns were the sisters who decided the fate of all mankind.
Past - "Uror" (left)
The rune in this first position gives insight into underlying forces in the past which may have a bearing on the current situation.

Present - "Veroandi" (middle)
The rune in the second position gives insight into events that are currently unfolding now. This may be a major indicator, or a minor indicator that deserves more attention.

Future - "Skuld" (right)
The word "Skuld" literally means "necessity", and this position indicates an outcome that must necessarily occur based upon the current situation. Changes in this situation may alter the prediction of this rune.
3. The Diamond (intermediate) 4 runes
This popular rune spread arranges four rune stones in a classic diamond arrangement.
This spread is very useful for gaining insight into the properties of the present moment, and predicting their immediate outcome.
The Facet of the Past (left)
The rune in this position represents past events or situations that may have bearing on the current situation.

The Facet of Tomorrow (right)
The rune in this position represents the near future, and may give insight into forces affecting your next steps.

The Facet of Distraction (down)
The rune in this position represents forces which may block your path, or prevent you from achieving your goals.

The Facet of the Future (up)
The rune in this last position represents forces or energies that give insight into the final outcome of the situation.
4. The Cross (advanced) 5 runes
One of the most classic and powerful rune spreads, the cross uses 5 rune stones arranged in a 'cross' pattern.
The cross spread is used to gain insight into the greater forces at work in one's life. It is an extremely broad reading into character, and the arc of one's existence.
The Past (left)
The rune in this first position represents those forces or energies from the past which are affecting the current situation.

The Present (right)
The rune in this position gives insight into events that are taking place now. What energies are at work? What areas require insight and meditation?

The Future (below)
The rune in this position gives insight into what forces will effect future events and relationships.

The Challenge (up)
The rune in this top position represents that which stands in your path. The meaning of this rune can be an obstacle, or an indication of what to expect on the road ahead.

Inner Powers (middle)
The rune in this center position represents your source of personal power in this situation. What forces at your core will help you to achieve success in the current situation?
5. The Well of Wyrd (advanced) 6 runes
This rune spread yields very complex insights into a wide variety of questions about fate and the forces which affect it.
According to Norse mythology, the Well of Wyrd is where the great Tree of Life gets its water. The well is "filled" with the deeds of man. Legends say Odin discovered the runes at the roots of the tree itself.
The Quester (top left)
This position represents the person at the heart of the question. The position gives insight into current circumstances, situations and areas of concern. The quester's immediate surroundings.

The Difficult Path
"The Difficult Path" position gives insights into those forces that oppose the "Quester" (position 1). What forces or individuals stand in the way? Or, what qualities are currently lacking?

The Road Behind
This position stretches behind the "Quester". It is the background or past mental state that is crucial to the current position. What has gone before? Where has the Quester been? Who or what has had influence?

The Way to the Root (below left)
This position indicates "Near Futures" and gives insight into immediate next steps. How does the present situation affect tomorrow?

A Calculated Step
This position depicts mindsets and courses of action that will assist the Quester moving forward. Something must be cautiously remembered. Moving forward, what should the Quester be mindful of?

At the Great Well
The final position gives insight into an overall energy which defines the Quester and his or her fate. What is the outcome of this situation? What will ultimately be its defining issue?
6. The circle
The Issue
This position gives insights into what is missing romantically, or what has been missing in the past. What is the source of problems? What has the issue been?

The Power to Overcome
This position gives insight into how the issues (position 1) can be overcome. What forces bring a couple into physical and emotional contact?

The Next Step
This position indicates a next step on the path towards emotional and romantic fulfillment. What lies ahead in the immediate future? What must you be mindful of?

The Soulmate
This position gives insight into your search for the perfect soulmate. What are the qualities you seek? (or have unfortunately found?)

This important position gives insight into timing. What will the future hold? What events must happen first, before you can become truly romantically fulfilled?

The final position gives insight into an overall energy which defines a union. The runes may offer words of caution here -- things to be avoided. Or words of prophecy -- things which will come of your union.
7. The Great Tree
Branch of the Heart
This position gives insights into the emotional character of the individual. What forces define his or her emotional state? What are his or her emotional ideals?

Branch of the Mind
Emotion and Logic exist within all people. What defines the logical character of this person? What underpins their logical or critical thought?

Supporting Branches
This position indicates that which lies beneath a persons outer shell. What forces operate in their subconscious? What forces do they keep hidden from general view?

Future Growth
These young branches will be the great branches of tomorrow. What forces beginning now, will take on major defining roles in the future? What issues are on the rise?

The Trunk
This central position indicates the core of one's nature. What is defining at this time? What concept is central? What drives this person on (or holds them back from achieving great heights?)
8. The Fork (intermediate) 3 runes
The Decision
Position 1 represents the decision at hand. What forces have influence? Was anything overlooked? (NOTE: Before continuing, you must decide which of the next positions represent your 2 choices)

Left Fork: Choice #1
This position gives insight into the first option. What forces will affect its outcome? What lies ahead should you consider this path? What energies have influence?

Right Fork: Choice #2
This position gives insight into the second option. What forces will affect its outcome? What lies ahead should you consider this path? What energies have influence?
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Old 12-19-2012, 04:27 PM   #12 (permalink)

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Runic Wands (Gandrs)

Runic Magic
Because they involve all your senses, runes are powerful magical devices. Through sound, color, image, number, and divine powers they provide ways of moving energy toward an intended purpose. Traditionally, people used runes as talismans, charms, on rings, in candle magic, and in ritual. Because they are compact, easy to use, and versatile, runes continue to be invaluable in magic. They are also easy to carry and conceal.

When you do magic, you are creating or influencing a pattern of energy. In fact, magic can be said to be the practice of noticing and influencing synchronicity through intention, expectation, and merging. When you practice magic, you intentionally thread and weave fields of energy together in an effort to create positive change. You will it to be so, and then you act upon your intention.

Magic begins with intention and expectation, together with desire. This, when merged with the divine, unleashes energies both within the individual and within the cosmic forces of Oneness. When you learn to use the power of your expectations to become clear about what you truly desire, you become more aware of the synchronicity continually taking place around you. This synchronicity is a result of the connection between everything in Oneness. By understanding these connections, you give your magical patterns added power. It's the difference between having a map showing you how to get to your destination and stumbling around blind, hoping you might get there. Synchronicity is a road map to Oneness and magic is a process of getting where you want to go.

Fields of energy, called morphogenic fields, surround the human body. We are all powerhouses of psychic energy that emanates to and from us in all direction. Magic is being aware of and influencing these patterned fields. This means that inside you exists a great power that you can cultivate and extend. This psychic energy has the potential to influence things, and the more focused and congruent we become at gathering and directing this energy, the more successful our magic.

Knowing this, we can have faith that things will turn out the way we intend. This is our magical field of intention. We can set our field of energy to have a certain magical effect by systematically extending it, reaching new heights of experience. The strongest energy field prevails, which is why it is important to remember that we are influencing energies-not manipulating people-with magic. Keep in mind that everything you expect and turn your mind to, you bring into being, whether it is positive or negative, conscious or unconscious. In this respect, it is wise to master your thoughts.

Magic influences synchronistic change on an energetic level as well as on a physical level. The energetic level is felt in terms of your state of consciousness. The way you think has a profound effect on your reality. The physical and energetic interact constantly and affect one another, so change on one level influences change on the other. Change displaces energy, moves it around, and we can make use of this shifting of power in magic.

Nothing exists in a vacuum. Everything affects everything else. When doing magic, we need to be aware of our intentions and expectations, to take responsibility for our actions. We need to become more aware of how these intentions and expectations affect our life and the world as a whole.

Making A Gandr
1) Select a wood with the qualities you desire.
Types of wood and its magical properties:
Alder - The "battle witch" of trees, it represents truth, as in purification by fire.
Ash - The "guardian tree," dispenser of justice. The first man was an ash. The world tree, Yggdrasil-synonymous with the yew-is commonly referred to as an evergreen ash. Ash bark is deadly to snakes.
Beech - Tree of the Three Norns, its bark is also deadly to snakes. Runes were written on thin beech boards.
Birch - Called the "birth-tree," and associated with the Mother Goddess, it has been used in healing and for magical besom brooms. It also
symbolizes the return of spring. Traditionally you consecrate it to Thor. The birch protects you against lightning.
Elder - The "thirteenth tree," represents the Great Goddess and is associated with Berkana.
Elm - In the Northern Tradition, the first woman was shaped from an elm. This tree also is associated with the Mother Goddess, the light elves,
and healing.
Hazel - The tree of wisdom, the hazel cuts away impurities to see the self honestly.
Laurel - The oracle tree of Delphi, this tree represents victory and honor.
Oak - The "Forest King" of endurance, tree of the Norse god Frey, and the primary wood of the sacred fire of the Goddess, the oak is associated with fertility, ancestry, and love. Its fruit, the acorn, is a symbol of
the Goddess.
Pine - Representing the cycle of life and rebirth, the pine is called "Tree of the Manifest," the sun. Pinecones are its fruits and symbolize the Goddess.
Rowan - Called "Tree of Runes" and "Wood of the Sorcerer," the rowan's pliability is thought to aid in magic. The tree branches
are tied with red thread to protect your home or property from enemies.
Silver Fir - The fir is associated with the Moon, representing feminine rebirth.
Willow - The traditional tree that wands are fashioned from, the willow is flexible and excellent to use for magic and enchantment. This tree draws its power from water.
Yarrow - Also called Milfoil, this is a popular wood for divining wands. It is also a healing herb called "the medicine of life."
Yew - Yew is a poplar wood for runic talismans and wands. It is also a tree of death and rebirth and is associated with Yggdrasil, Odin, Ymir, Uller, and the Valkyries.
2) After choosing the type of wood to use, locate a living tree from which to cut your wand.

3) When you find the tree, communicate with it. Sit under the tree and feel its bark supporting you. Touch the tree with the palms of your hands. Look up at the canopy and notice how the branches weave out from the trunk.

4) Walk around the tree three times sunwise (clockwise), asking if you may have a branch from its body. You will receive some sort of feeling at this point, whether or not to proceed with cutting the wand. If it is positive, the tree will help you select the best branch. if you feel a negative response, find another tree and repeat the procedure.

5) Dig a small hole in the ground at the base of the tree and make an offering such as mead and bread or plant food, and then thank the tree. Say to the guardian, or "wight," of the tree:
"Hail to thee, wight of (insert tree name),
I pray to thee give this branch of your body!
Into it send thy speed,
To it bind the might of the bright runes.
(insert the names of the runes to be used on your wand)
Then cut your wand, while chanting to toning the runes, preferably on a day of the new moon or during the waning moon. Timing the cutting in this manner will ensure the proper amount of time-an entire moon cycle-for "curing" the wand. Traditionally, wands were snapped off the tree, not cut with metal blades. Staffs are larger and are usually cut. If you are going to cut the branch with a metal blade, use your magical knife or sword, and take appropriate safety precautions as you proceed. Protect the tree by painting the cut area on its trunk or branch with a small amount of bituminous paint or seal it in another way.

6) Once the wand or staff is cut, thank the tree wight for its magical gift by saying:
"Wight if (insert tree name), accept my thanks.
Henceforth may your might be in this branch!
Magically bound to the bright runes (insert rune names),
Working my will with speed and wisdom."
7)Begin to shape the branch's personality. Use your wand to strip off the bark, collecting and keeping the bark shavings on a cloth or piece of newspaper. Sometime during the next 28 days (a moon phase), go back and sprinkle the bark shavings around the base of the tree in a sunwise (clockwise) circle. While doing this, touch the tree with the palms of your hands and thank it again. Create a simple blessing song or chant for the tree, and sing it as you walk around the base of the tree three times sunwise.

8) Leave the stripped runic wand in the sunlight and moonlight for an entire moon cycle, while working with it each day to perfect its shape.

9) After the runic wands skin has dried, you can paint, write, or burn runes into the surface, but ideally cut them into the wood. When carved into the wand, the runes infuse the tool with supernatural and divine strength.

The "ristir," meaning "cut," is an extremely sharp wood carving tool customarily used for the cutting of runes. You could also use a wand. The cutting of the runes into different materials is an act of magic, one requiring your full attention. Call in the appropriate divine energies as you work, making an effort to sense the rune before you cut it. State the purpose of the rune and sense the direction of the energies. This will help you decide where to start the cutting. When in doubt, use your intuition. Chant the runes or the corresponding Galdr song with each rune that you cut into the wood. If the runic wand has a magical name, carve it on the shaft.

Besides cutting runes on your runic wand, you can also use consecrated oil or the ashes of burned runes to trace the symbols. Take time to think carefully before marking the tool irrevocably with the runes. Be sure the runes match the tool's intended use. The purpose of putting runes on the tool is essentially to bless and dedicate it to a specific task. The runes make the tool's attributes purer, stronger, and more reliable.

10) After carving them, the next step is to redden the runes. Traditionally, "Tiver" extracted from the madder plant, is used. As an interesting side note, the word tiver means "magic," and the color red symbolizes magic and active energy. Red runes stimulate the circulation of the blood and the senses. You can also use red ocher, minium (red lead), dragon's-blood resin, or another reddening substance. These reddening pigments are ground with linseed oil, in a sacred manner, while you are chanting, "Laukaz, Laukaz, Laukaz," before you begin. Laukaz invokes the fertility of nature. To apply the red dye to the runes, a special tool called a "galdrstaf" is customarily used. Inscribed with the appropriate runes, it is a small veneer-thin piece of wood cut into the shape of an isosceles triangle that can easily be held in your hand. Chant or sing the runes as you redden them.

11) Use consecrated oil or beeswax to seal your runic wand. Match the magical qualities of the oil to the intended purpose of your wand. For example, a wand sealed with honeysuckle oil would give it qualities of protection, abundance, and strength.

12) Complete your runic wand with natural materials like silk ribbon, feathers, and shells, or mount a quartz crystal in the tip. The hinder (bottom) end of the gandr is rounded or blunted.

Runic Magic
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Runic Wands

Runic Charms

Since Odin shared the wisdom of the runes with humankind, runic symbols have been particularly valuable in creating magical charms for love, money, and protection, as well as for success, victory, and gaining wisdom. Charms are essential parts of folk magic and when used properly, can assist with personal, emotional, physical, and spiritual challenges, helping ensure the success of a cure or a magical work, and improving and enriching your life.

Before you begin, make sure you have a clear intention and expectation. Build your desire for a successful and powerful outcome, and make an effort
to merge as deeply as you can with deity. Effective charms are done, like all
magic, using intention, expectation, desire, and merging. Remember negative magic will only come back to haunt you. It is always possible to find a way to create the results you want in a positive way.

Examples of Runic Charms
The following runic charms reflect a blending of Northern and Celtic traditional incantations, plus some more contemporary formulas. They utilize three runes each. One of the runes is non-invertible-a rune that looks the same whether upright and reversed and represents the realm which power is drawn. When drawing these runes as bindrunes, work from the non-invertible rune outward.

Rune Money Charm

Divine Powers: Freyja and Frey, Njord and Nerthus
Three Runes: Ingwaz, Fehu, Laguz.
Ingwaz Non-invertible rune, storehouse of potential energy, a rune of the Vanir, of peace and plenty.
Fehu Mobile wealth, prosperity, and plenty.
Laguz Rune of magical power and growth.
Rune Healing Charm

Divine Powers: Thor, Iduna, Eir.
Three Runes: Sowilo, Jera, Uruz.
Sowilo Non-invertible rune. Strengthening solar energy,
motivating healing energies.
Jera Rune that accesses the healing energies of the Earth
and the yearly cycles of the sun and moon.
Uruz Strength and driving energy for healing energies.
General Protection Rune Charm

Divine Powers: Odin, the Valkyries, Thor.
Three Runes: Isa, Naudhiz, Thurisaz.
Isa Non-invertible rune, crystallizes and constrains energies,
using the powers of ice and frost.
Naudhiz Rune of protection and deliverance from distress.
Thurisaz The thorn of protection. Can be used in its passive mode (reversed) or in its active mode (upright), depending upon the situation.

Extinguishing the Old Flame Rune Charm

Divine Powers: Freyja and Frey.
Three Runes: Ingwaz, Ansuz, Perdhro.
Ingwaz Non-invertible rune, draws energies from the Vanir,
especially Frey.
Ansuz The energy to release old patterns and feelings,
using breathing, chanting, or singing.
Perdhro The rune of change, synchronicity, and divine guidance.
Rune Protection Charm from Negativity

Divine Powers: Odin and the Norns.
Three Runes: Isa, Kenaz, and Raidho.
Isa Non-invertible rune, used to slow energies down.
Kenaz Allows you to see things coming your way, whether positive or negative. Helps you to focus your attention.
Raidho Returns negative energy to its source.

Rune Healing Charm for Reducing Fever

Divine Powers: Nerthus, Iduna, Eir, Thor.
Three Runes: Isa, Laguz, Naudhiz.
Isa Non-invertible rune, cools things down.
Laguz Cooling and soothing power of water.
Naudhiz Provides you with only the fire you "need" while you
are healing. Balances the inner fire.

Safe Travel Rune Charm

Divine Powers: Freyja and Odin, Thor, Baldur.
Three Runes: Sowilo, Ansuz, Raidho.
Sowilo Non-invertible rune, strengthens the energies for traveling,
melts ice, lights up your path from one locale to another.
Ansuz Balances elemental powers of the wind.
Raidho Ensures a safe journey.

Rune Success Charm

Divine Powers: Odin, Thor, Baldur.
Three Runes: Sowilo, Fehu, Jera.
Sowilo Non-invertible rune, strengthens your personal power and mental skills.
Fehu Associated with Frey and mobile wealth.
Jera The harvest rune, signifying reward and good luck.
Rune Victory Charm

Divine Powers: Tyr and Zisa, Frigga, Thor.
Three Runes: Sowilo, Tiwaz, Algiz.
Sowilo Non-invertible rune, strengthens and melts the ice.
Tiwaz The rune of law, justice, patterns, and courage.
Algiz A powerful protector rune for defense and victory.
Rune Wisdom Charm

Divine Powers: Mimir and the Norns.
Three Runes: Mannaz, Ansuz, Kenaz.
Mannaz The hugrune of memory and mental ability.
Ansuz The hugrune of inspiration.
Kenaz The hugrune of knowledge.
Rune Love Charm

Divine Powers: Freyja and Frey, Frigga and Thor.
Three non-invertible runes: Gebo, Ingwaz, Dagaz.
Gebo Non-invertible rune, representing the exchange of energies and the give-and-take in relationships.
Ingwaz Used to invoke the blessings of the Vanir; rune of fertility.
Dagaz Balance of male and female energies in the relationship.
Magical Power Rune Charm

Divine Powers: Odin, Heimdall, Freyja.
Three Runes: Sowilo, Kenaz, Raidho.
Sowilo Non-invertible rune, represents the sun and is associated with Alfheim (world of the light-elves), from which the energy is drawn.
Kenaz Signifies the powers of discovery and intuition, clairvoyance, and a clear mind.
Raidho The rune associated with the solar cycle.

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Runic Wands

Magical Timing
Timing is all-important when doing runic magic. If the proper universal energies are lacking, doing magic can become as futile as trying to hammer a nail into a stone. On the other hand, with correct timing, magical works can spread wings of their own and really take off!

The eight divisions of the year represent the traditional yearly cycle of
Northern Europe. The best times for runic magic are the eight seasonal solar festivals. Each of these days has traditions that have been passed down through the years. For example, Beltane, or Walpurgis Night, was sacred to Freyja. On the winter solstice in Holland, the midwinter horn was blown and a flaming (solar) wheel was rolled down a hill to celebrate the return of the sun.

The Eight Days of Power
These eight days of power occur on the equinoxes, solstices, and four cross-quarter days. The following are the runic correspondences for these magical days. Remember to focus on the associated rune, depending upon the time of the year. This will make your rune magic more timely and guarantee better results.
Winter Solstice/Yule -- Dec. 21 -- Isa, Jera, Eihwaz.
Imbolc/Bridget's Day - Feb 2 -- Perdhro, Algiz, Sowilo.
Spring Equinox/Hertha's Day - March 21 -- Tiwaz, Ehwaz, Berkana.
Beltane - May 1-5 -- Mannaz, Laguz, Ingwaz.
Summer Solstice/Midsummer - June 21 -- Othala, Dagaz, Fehu.
Lughnassad - First Week August -- Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz.
Autumnal Equinox/Hellith's Day - Sept 22 -- Raidho, Kenaz, Gebo.
Samhain - Nov 1-5 -- Wunjo, Hagalaz, Naudhiz.

The Eight-Fold Moon Phase

The Norse people understood the natural cycles of the moon and used them in their lives. They knew the waxing moon was the time for building energy, while the waning moon was the time for releasing it. Traditionally, from the new moon to the first-quarter moon is a time to initiate and build, to clarify your intention and expectation. From the first quarter to the full moon is the time to cultivate what you have created and to gather the energy needed for its successful completion. The full moon is called the High Moon, because it is then that lunar energies are strongest. The last quarter of the moon corresponds to harvest time, when you reap the rewards of your efforts. The last quarter through the dark moon and into the new moon is a time to explore the mysteries of life, rebirth, and dreams.

When doing magic with runes, select those that correspond to the specific moon phase or day of power on which you are working. The following indicates the eight-fold moon phase cycle and how it corresponds to the eight solar days of power, together with the primary corresponding rune.
New Moon - Winter Solsitce -- Jera.
Crescent Moon - Imbolc -- Algiz.
First Quarter Moon - Spring Equinox -- Berkana.
Gibbous Moon - Beltane -- Laguz.
Full Moon - Summer Solstice -- Dagaz.
Disseminating Moon - Laghnassad -- Thurisaz.
Last Quarter Moon - Autumnal Equinox -- Kenaz.
Balsamic/Dark Moon - Samhain -- Hagalaz.

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Galdr or Galdor, from the Old Norse, originally meant 'incantation'. The verb "gala" is also used for "to crow". It later came to mean magic in general. These are the sounds used in runic oral spells.
Fehu "fay-who"
fehu fehu fehu
f f f f f f f f f
fu fa fi fe fo
of ef if af uf
f f f f f f f f f

Magical Effect:
This rune provides success, advancement in career, a turnabout in luck for those in difficulty. The good luck it provides is not permanent, but a single event or a short period of good fortune. After that the charm must be renewed, not only magically but through an act of binding or connection in the social sense. This act can be a gift to charity, help to another, or some other action to like oneself to a social order. This rune is good for areas of money, friendliness, and gaining merit. Fehu is a sign of hope and plenty, success and happiness, but also the responsibilities of those at the top and a social binding at all levels.
It is the power of generation at its most basic level. Its energies are totally wild and very useful for magick involving swift, radical changes. To hasten affairs to their next stage&emdash;use after the "subject " rune in your runescript. To increase monetary wealth. Protection of valuables. The "sending" rune&emdash;use it to send either your energy or the enrgy of the runes out into the formative spheres.

Strengthens psychic powers. Channel for power transference or projection; the sending rune. Drawing the projected power of the sun, moon, and stars into the personal sphere. Promotion of personal and social evolution. Increase in monetary wealth.

For attracting wealth and protecting property.
Uruz "ooo-rooze"
uruz uruz uruz
u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u r r r r r r
u u u u u u u u u

Magical Effect:
Ur is useful for using primal power to release creativity and create sudden change. It can be used to release or tame power. In all cases there is a certain danger to the action, since it will be the runecaster's personal skill and power which will control that which is unleashed. In conjunction with other runes, ur is useful in teh evocation of various natural powers. it helps ub areas of risk and beginning an adventure, even that of starting a business or any other area in which you are putting something at risk. In the eighteen runes of which Odin speaks, the sixteenth is one that wins the heart of a woman. This sense of taming a woman was endemic in the attitudes of aesir gods and their followers.

This is the rune of changes. Uruz is the shaping power that brings about manifestation. Use it to give sluggish circumstances a little prod. A rune of vitality and strength, it is useful in healing magick, especially when the patient is weak and needs some extra strength.To draw new situations into your life. To initiate new circumstances purely by a force of will. Healing and maintenance of good physical health.

Shaping and forming circumstances creatively through will and inspiration. Healing and maintenance of good mental and physical health. Bringer of fortunate curcumstances. Induction of magnetic earth streams. Realization of causality. Knowledge and understanding of the self. Thorsson, Futhark.
To clear obstacles and change circumstances.
Thurisaz "thoor-ee-saws"
thurisaz thurisaz thurisaz
th th th th th th th th th
thur thar thur ther thor
thu tha thu the tho
th th th th th th th th th

Magical Effect:
Thorn (Thurisaz) is useful for attack and sometimes for tests. It makes poeple careless at the wrong moment; it makes people sicken; it drives people insane. It is particularly suitable for increasing the fear of poeple already afraid. Of Odin's list of eighteen runes, the sixth turns an enemy's spells against them. In the poem the spell is stated to be the root of a sapling with runes cut into it.

Directed cosmic power of defense. It symbolizes Mjollnir, the Hammer of Thor. It is pure will untempered by self-consciousness. It is a projectable form of applied power. The force of Thurisaz is able to direct their energies in an effective fashion. Use it when a "little something extra" is required to get things off the ground. New beginnings. Use when you need luck or when circumstances are beyond your control. Protection or defense. Neutralization of enemies or opposition. To push the issue in love magick.

Defensive (active). Destruction of enemies, curses. Awakening of the will to action. Perparedness for generation in all realms. Love magic. Knowledge of the division and unity of all things.

For protection and defense.
Ansuz "awn-sooze"
ansuz ansuz ansuz
aw aw aw aw aw aw aw aw aw
aw aw aw aw aw aw s s s s s s
aw aw aw aw aw aw
aw aw aw aw aw aw aw aw aw

Magical Effect:
This is a rune of luck, good fortune, good fortune, immortality, divine impulse of human beings, and the invocation of divine power or help. Compare this to the rune thorn, which calls upon the chaotic or evil powers of the universe. Os is also good for writing poetry or prose or for success in public speaking. In Odin's list of eighteen runes, the fourteenth tells the names of the gods and elves one by one.

Ansuz is the rune of communications. It rules over song, poetry, examinations, interviews and magickal incantations. It is good to use wherever communication is the issue. Convincing and magnetic speech. To gain wisdom. Confidence and luck with exams. Increase of active magickal energies.

Increase of both active and passive magical powers and clairvoyant abilities,etc. Convincing and magnetic speech, and the power of suggestion and hypnosis. Acquisition of creative wisdom, inspiration, estacy, and divine communication.

To increase communicative skills, pass exams and gain wisdom.
Raidho "rye-though"
raidho raidho raidho
r r r r r r r r r
ru ra ri re ro
rudh radh ridh redh rodh
(rut rat rit ret rot)
or er ir ar ur
r r r r r r r r r

Magical Effect:
This rune symbolizes the journey to a place of power, the realms of the dead. Thus it can be used to gain knowledge from the dead through necromancy, seance, and divination. It is also useful for promoting change, unblocking stymied situations, and hallowing things. It can be used to bless, in both positive and negative sense. A negative blessing is simply an injunction against dark forces, much like the Orthodox "God save you from all demons." But it can also be used to invoke positive forces. In both cases there is a link to the dead who have positive or negative wisdon for and intentions toward us. It is good for understanding great changes, anything to do with ancestors (apart from inheritance), traveling in safety, and immigration.

Raidho is not only a rune of travel but also rules over the cosmic laws of Right and Order. It is useful for legal matters, especially when you have been unjustly accused and need to bring those forces of Right to bear on the issue. Safe and comfortable travel.Peschel, A Practical Guide to the Runes. Strengthens ritual abilities and experieince. Access to "inner advice". Raises consciousness to right and natural rhythms. Obtaining justice according to right.

To ensure a safe journey.
Kenaz "cane-awze"
kenaz kenaz kenaz
ku ka ki ke ko
kun kan kin ken kon
ok ek ik ak uk

Magical Effect:
Ken is useful for spiritual understanding, initiation, the harnessing of power, and guardianship. It can be used to bring strength to an individual, or for the banishment of dark forces of any kind. It can help overcome obstacles through learning. It is also a good luck charm. It is not, however, any good for combat. It banishes the dark; it doesn't defeat it.

Kenaz is another rune of Fire, but unlike Fehu, it is a gentle, more controlled form which gives the ability and the will to create. It is the rune of the artist and craftsman and is useful either when creativity is the issue or when artistic things are very important to the person for whom you are creating the runescript. It also governs the technical aspects of magick. It is the rune that governs passion, positive attributes. Use to strengthen any runescript. Healing, physical well-being. Love, stability and passion in relationships. Fresh starts. Protection of valuables.

Strengthening of abilities in all realms. Creative inspiration. Higher polarization as a tool of operation. Operations of regeration, healing, and love.

To restore self-confidence and strengthen will-power.
Gebo "gay-boe"
gebo gebo gebo
gu ga gi ge go
gub gab gib geb gob
og eg ig au ur
g a a a f f f f f

Magical Effect:
Propitiation; removal of a curse (or karmic debt) through a sacrifice which brings with it right intention and action. A sign under which gifts can be made to the gods. Of Odin's eighteen runes, the last is secret. It could be the secret of sacrifice.

Gifu is the rune of partnerships in all realms. It contains the power to integrate the energies of two or more people in order to produce a force that is greater than the sum total of their individual parts.Increase magickal powers. Anything to do with partnerships. Mental and pysical equilibrium.

To creaste harmony in personal relationships.
Wunjo "woon-yo"
wunjo wunjo wunjo
wu wa wi we wo
wun wan win wen won
wo we wi wa wu
w w w u u u n n n

Magical Effect:
Gaining the favor or untapped power of superiors, whether mortal or immortal; obtaining promotion or passing tests. It is also useful for gaining wisdom, and is very useful for timing spell results. If you want a spell to work at a particular time, wunjo can be used to control the release of spell energy. So a talisman might use wynn to made to work for nine days, in nine days, or some similar feature. Our method of measuring time (e.g;., four o'clock on Thursday) is not suitable, and the rune works at its best in a multiple of nine.

Wunjo is the rune of "happily ever after". It is generally used in the final position as a significator of success and happiness. Fulfillment in any area, especially love or career. Success in travel.

Strengthens links and bonds. Invocation of fellowship and harmony. Banishes alienation. Happiness and well-being. Realization of the links and multiplicity of relationships of all things. Binding runes toward specific purposes.

To bring happiness and spiritual transformation.
Hagalaz "haw-gaw-laws"
hagalaz hagalaz hagalaz
h h h h h h h h h
hu ha hi he ho
hug hag hig heg hog
(hul hal hil hel hol)
oh eh ih ah uh
h h h h h h h h h

Magical Effect:
This is a rune of meditation and the council of silence, and aids consideration, decision, and meditation. It is also useful for overcoming aspects of our lower nature, including prankishness or bad habits.It is therefore very useful in overcoming impediments or obstacles to success. This is the rune of self-undoing and overcoming the tendency to undo one's own efforts.

The meaning of Hagall in magick is very different from its meanings in divination. In magick, it is a rune of evolution, but it is evolution of the slow but sure type within a fixed framework. Its fixed nature promotes security and keeps negative energies from entering your space. Protection. Use where luck is needed. To encourage a positive result within a fixed framework.

Completeness and balance of power. Mystical and numinous experience and knowledge. Evolutionary, becoming operations.

To attract positive influences.
Nauthiz "now-these"
naudhiz naudhiz naudhiz
n n n n n n n n n
nu na nu ne no
nudh nadh hudh nedh niodh
(nut nat nit net not)
un an in en on
n n n n n n n n n

Magical Effect:
For all forms of success and all types of achievement. However, remember that a gift, and take note of the associated god. Useful for harnessing internal power, intuition and creativity, the ability to achieve, as with a sudden rush of adrenaline or creation of momentum. The fourth of Odin's runes frees one from locks and fetters, which ties in well with the meaning of nyd.

This rune has two aspects and you would do well to remember them when formulating your runescript. Nied represents need and distress but also the release from that distress. Through the utilization of this rune by teh will, one can change Fate via knowledge and wisdom. This rune is a very poerful rune in Icelandic love magick and represents the primal needs and desires that drive you to seek out a lover. Overcoming distress. Acheiving your goals. Protection. Love magick and to find a lover. Impetus to get a relationship off the ground.

Overcoming distress or negative energy. Development of magical will. Development of "spiritual" powers. Protection. Use of the force of "resistance" under will toward magical goals. Sudden inspiration. Eliminates hate and strife. Creates a need for order. Recognition of personal need. Love magic--to obtain a lover.

To achieve long-term goals or help lost causes.
Isa "ee-saw"
isa isa isa
i i i i i i i i i
i i i i i i s s s s s s
(s s s s s s i i i i i i)
i i i i i i i i i

Magical Effect:
Representative of masculinity, of authority, elineation and circumcision. Also represents a circumcision of action through the weather. Anything to do with authority. It is also good for dealing with conflict, and for magically gathering allies [who must be your equals, or nearly so]. It can also uncover enemies.

The Isa rune rules the forces of inertia and entropy. It is also a symbol of the ego. To "freeze" a situation as it is. Development of will. Halting of unwanted forces.

Development of concentration and will. Constriction, halting of unwanted dynamic forces. Basic ego integration within a balanced multiversal system. Power of control and constraint over other beings.

To make a situation static, ground wayward emotions and calm volatile actions.
Jera "yare-awe"
jera jera jera
j j j e e e r r r a a a
j j j j j j j j j
ju ja ji je jo
(jur jar jir jer jor)
j j j e e e r r r a a a

Magical Effect:
Comfort; harmony with others. A symbol of right thoughts and right action leading to right results, a culmination of efforts over a long period of time. It is also good for gardening, farming, having a happy home, and good times. Put jera over the door of your house on New Year's Eve. Use indelible ink because the luck is meant to last as long as jera remains there.

Jera is the rune of the harvest, of rewards arriving at their proper tine. It also governs legailites of all sorts and is useful in all legal matters. Use when a tangible result is expected for an outlay of money, time or effort. Helps to bring events to pass. Helps in legal matters. Fertility.

Fertility, creativity. Peace, harmony. Enlightenment. Realization of the cyclical nature of the multiverse. Realization of the mystery of the omnipresent circumference. Bringing other concepts into material manifestation.

To bring events to culmination.
Eihwaz "eye-wawz"
eihwaz eihwaz eihwaz
(iwaz iwaz iwaz)
e e e e e e e e e
[a neutral, closed vowel sound]
iwu iwa iwi iwa iwu
iwo iwe iwi iwa iwu
e e e e e e e e e

Magical Effect:
Protection of oneself and one's rights. When things are out of kilter this rune can help this rune can help set them back in line. However, if it is the runecaster who is out of whack, things suffer for it. This rune can thus be used in conjunction with other runes to keep the magic of the whole within reasonable bounds. It forms a kind of feedback mechanism within talismans and rune magic.

Eihwaz symbolizes the yew tree and is a very powerful rune of banishing and protection. Protection. Increase in power. Removal of obstacles.

Initiation into the wisdom of the World-Tree (the axis of the multiverse). Realization of the death/life mystery and liberation from the fear of death. Development of spiritual endurance and hard will. Spiritual creativity and vision. Protection from detrimental forces. General increase in personal power. Communication between levels of reality. Memories of former existences in the the ancestral stream.

To end situations and solve problems.
Perthro "pear-throw"
perthro perthro perthro
pu pa pi pe po
purdh pardh pirdh perdh pordh
po pe pi pa pu
p p p e e e r r r th th th r r r o o o

Magical Effect:
It opens or provides a barrier to the dark forces including the realms of the dead. It confronts us with our weaknesses, our failures, and our regrets. It makes us deal with the question of what we would do if we died now. It is therefore a useful rune of test and attack.

Perdhro is a rune of time and change. It rules over secrets and things hidden and is also allied with karmic energies. Evolving your magickal ideas. Use when dealing with investments or speculation. Use for finding lost things. To promote good mental health in healing.

Perception of ærlog (fate/destiny/karma). Divination. Placing runic forces into the stream of cause and effect. To evolve ideas or events as a magical act.

To find lost property, obtain inner guidance and make financial speculations.
Algiz or Elhaz, "all-geese", or "ale-hawz"
elhaz elhaz elhaz
z z z z z z z z z
[a deep whirring, whistling sound]
uz az iz ez uz
oz ez iz az uz
z z z z z z z z z
(m m m m m m m m m)

Magical Effect:
Every possible form of protection from every possible source of danger is Algiz's domain. Protection and defense, physical or spiritual, personal or collective.

Another powerful rune of protection, Eolh was often carved into weapons for victory and safety during battle. As its shape is the one we stand in when we invoke the gods or draw energy from the heavens, it is also seen as the connecting bridge between gods and men. Protection from enemies. Protection from evil. Promotes friendships. Strengthens luck and the life force.

Protection, defense. Mystical and religious communication with nonhuman sentient beings. Communication with other worlds, especially Asgard and the cosmic wells of Urdhr, Mirmir, and Hvergelmir. Strengthening of magical power and luck and life force.
Sowilo "soe-wee-low"
sowilo sowilo sowilo
s s s s s s s s s
s s s o o o l l l
su sa si se so
(sul sal sil sel sol)
us as is es os
si se su sa su
s s s s s s s s s

Magical Effect:
Transcendent power, salvation, knowledge, strength in times of trouble. Also useful for matters of success and divination. Will counter all dark forces. The sun is a symbol of personal, trascendent salvation.

Sigel is the rune of the will. It is that spiritual energy which guidws all true seekers. A rune of success. Victory, sucess. Used for healing. Used when strength and self-confidence are needed.

Strengthening of the psychic centers. Increase in spiritual will. Guidance through the pathways, "enlightenment". Victory and success through individual will.

To increase good health, and vitality.
Tiwaz "tea-wawz"
tiwaz tiwaz tiwaz
t i i i i i r r r r r
tu ta ti te ter tor
tur tar tir ter tor
ot et it at ut
(Tyr Tyr)
T i i i i i r r r r r

Magical Effect:
A symbol of divine protection, of justice and honor in war or duel. It can be used to defend against or attack known enemies. It ensures victory and the righting of injustice, and can be used to bind an oath. Painted on shields to give bearers more courage and to protect in battle.

This is the great rune of victory and symbolizes kings and leaders of men. Tir is the rune of "might for right" and as such is valuable in a runescript when you have been unfairly denied something or have been falsely accused. It is indicative of the fighting spirit, of trial by combat and fearlessness. It is the primary masculine rune. Victory. Use whenever competition is a factor. Good for health and encourages quick recuperation. In love matters, Tir is used to synbolize the ardent male.

Obtaining just victory and success. Building spiritual will. Develops the power of positive self-sacrifice. Develops the "force of faith" in magic and religion.

To achieve victory over adversity and justice.
Berkano "bear-kawn-oh"
berkano berkano berkano
bu ba bi be bo
b e e e e e r r r r r
(burk bark birk berk bork)
ob eb ib ab ub
b e e e e e r r r r r

Magical Effect:
Healing, good health, calming troubled minds and atonement, childbirth and fertility.

Beorc is the rune of the Great Mother and as such is the primary rune of fertility. It also conceals and protects and rules over all protective enclosures, such as houses or temple areas. It is very good to use in a runescript for the peace, projection and harmony of a household. It represents a very feminine and nurturing female type. Fertility. Protection. Family matters. To bring ideas to fruition. To represent a certain type of female in a runescript.

Rebirth in the spirit. Strengthens the power of secrecy. Works of concealment and protection. To contain and hold other powers together. Realization of the oneness of the moment as the mother of all things. Bringing ideas to fruition in the creative process.

For fertility, family matters and love affairs.
Ehwaz or Ehwo, "ay-wawz", or "ay-woh"
ehwo ehwo ehwo
e e e e h w o o o
ehwu ehwa ehwi ehwe ehwo
ehwo ehwe ehwi ehwa ehwu
e e e e h w o o o

Magical Effect:
A call for divine aid in times of trouble, gathering of bonds of friendship, and the protection of friends. It can call aid from unlooked-for places. It is also a general good luck charm. In the poem of Odin, the seventh rune puts out fires of a friend's house.

This is a rune of abrupt changes and is good for initating bold new ventures. Use Ehwaz after the "subject" runes in your runescript to facilitate change. Brings change swiftly. Ensures safe travel.

Facilitations of "soul travel". Realization of fundamental unity of the psychosomatic complex. Imparts trust and loyalty. A source of prophetic wisdom. Projection of magical power.

To cause changes.
Mannaz "mawn-nawz"
mannaz mannaz mannaz
m m m a a a a a a n n n
mu ma mi me mo
mun man min men mon
um am im em om
mon men min man mun
m m m a a a a a a n n n
m m m m m m m m m

Magical Effect:
Mann helps in knowing oneself. It can therefore be used in mediation, to increase dreaming, or to enhance the truth of dreams. It can be used in conjuction with other runes to personalize matters or magic for or on a particular individual. It is also useful for cleansing oneself, a ritual which makes the afterlife more pleasant. In Odin's poem of runes, the second is one that must be learned by anyone who hopes to be a healer. Without knowing the patient, no healing is possible.

Mannaz is the symbol of mankind as a whole and is often used when assistance from others is needed. It also symbolizes the powers of the rational mind. To gain the assistance of others. Increase in memory and mental powers.

Realization of the divine structure in mankind. Increase in intelligence, memory, and mental powers generally. Balancing the "poles of personality". Unlocking the mind's eye.

To attract goodwill and new social contacts.
Laguz "law-gooze"
laguz laguz laguz
l l l l l l l l l
lu la li ke lo
(lug lag lig leg log)
ul al il el ol
lo le li la lu
l l l a a a g g g u u u
l l l l l l l l l

Magical Effect:
Useful as a symbol of water, of transitions between states, e.g., birth, life, growth and death. It is a perfect means for building an oath.

Lagaz is a rune of intuition and imagination. It is also a feminine rune, but unlike Beorc it represents a strong and assertive female type. Use to contact your intuitive faculties. Increase in vitality and the life force (especially in women). Helps to gather in energies for use by the will.

Guidance through difficult initatory tests. Increase in vitality and life fource. Gathering of amorphous magical power for formation and structuring by the will. Increase in "magnetism". Development of "second sight".

To manifest psychic powers.
Ingwaz "eeeng-wawz"
ingwaz ingwaz ingwaz
i i i i n n n n g g g g
ung ang ing eng ong
ong eng ing ang ung
i i i i n n n n g g g g

Magical Effect:
To gather people or to influence them. It can be used to establish dedication and loyalty, the "we" of a group. It can be used as a rune of fascination, which makes it suitable for strengthening hypnosis, trance, or meditation. It can also be used for gaining the respect of others, or gaining influential positions in a community.

Ing represents the male consort of the Earth Mother and as such is also a symbol of fertility. It is often used in the final posiiton of the runescript to indicate a successful outcome. It is a very positive rune. Fertility. To release energy suddenly. To bring something to a satisfactory end. To "fix" the outcome of your runescript so that the benefits indicated therein do not drain away.

Storage and transformation of power for ritual use. Fertility rites. Passive meditation and centering energy and thought. Sudden release of energy.

To end a cycle of events or specific situation.
Dagaz "thaw-gauze" with a voiced "th"
dagaz dagaz dagaz
dh dh dh dh dh dh dh dh dh
d d d a a a g g g a a a z z z
du da di de do
dh dh dh dh dh dh dh dh dh
odh edh idh adh udh
od ed ud ad ud
d d d a a a g g g a a a z z z

Magical Effect:
It is a good luck charm, and can also be used to advance one's station in life. It is helpful for spiritual advancement and understanding. It is an expression of universal love. Symbol of day, daylight and the powers of life: powers which exceed human control, structuring things by their own right, yet human-oriented.

Daeg is the rune of the New Day. It symbolizes the feelings embodied in the expression "Today is the first day of the rest of your life". It is particularly good for fresh starts in any endeavor. Good for financial increase. To change an attitude, either yours or someone else's. New beginnings.

Attaining mystical moment through penetration of paradox. Reception of mystical inspiration.

To create new beginnings or opportunities.
Othala "oath-awe-law"
othala othal othal
o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
othul othal othil othel othol
othol othel othil othal othul
o o o o o o

Magical Effect:
To call on ancestral powers, including calling up their spirits. This is a rune of merchants, but also the land-holding nobles and both classes in which inheritance, property and goods play a key role. It thus aids in partnerships, whetehr those of business, politics, or marriage. It can be used to guard family fortunes or build the strength of a dynasty. It can also develop strengths and talents in an individual. These abilities are considered latent, and brougth out by reference to ancestral (or genetic) potential. In Odin's poem, the seventeenth rune is acharm that will make a girl loathe to leave him; that is, it draws her into a committment.

Othel signifies possessions or ancestral lands and characteristics. This rune encourages a down-to-earth attitude of life. When paired with Fehu, good for monetary gains. Use wherever the health of the elderly is the issue. Protection of posessions.

Maintaining order among fellows. Concentration on common interests in home and family. Shift from ego-centricity to clan loyalty. Collection of numinous power and knowledge from past generations. Acquisition of wealth and prosperity.

For property matters.
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Old 12-27-2012, 06:07 PM   #16 (permalink)

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Rune – Secret, whisper, mystery, an ancient alphabetic script of Germanic origin.
Runic Scripts - are nothing more and nothing less than a set of runes gathered together to combine the power of each rune into much more powerful “entity” -- the Script. Such runic scripts can be also called a magic spells, because in some way this will be the truth. Runic Scripts are form of spells, used mainly for creation of amulets and talismans, they serve as protective spells, or spells attracting love etc.
Transcribing Runes - What's the difference between "translating" and "transcribing"?
The act of changing words written in the modern alphabet into written runic words is called "transcribing", the process is known as "transcription", and the finished piece is called a "transcript". More explaining is below:
One of the big misconceptions is that runes are a language and one has to translate modern English (or indeed any other modern language) into runes before writing. But that is not the case. The runes are not in any language. They are simply a system of writing, so you can write any word you can say using runes instead of the letters of the modern Latin alphabet that we use to write English and many other modern languages. Just think of the runes as an alternative ancient alphabet called the Futhark of 24 runes instead of our alphabet of 26 letters. There is no need to "translate" anything as it will sound the same whatever writing system you use. Just as the letters we call English, Deutsche, Dansk, Nederlandse etc are not in any language because they are used by scores of languages. The original rune users did have their own different languages - Scythian, Etruscan, Teutonic, Saxon, Old Norse, and eventually old English or Anglo-Saxon. So there is no reason you can't use runes for any language you like, including modern Western languages such as English. The main thing to remember is that the runes are phonetic, in other words you write things the way they sound, not the way they are spelled. Because runes do not follow English spelling. Example: "Through" is written in runes as "Thru", the runemaker writes it the way he hears it.
Oracle – A source of wisdom, knowledge or prophecy, a piece of advice in the form of a puzzle or enigmatic statement.
Elder Futhark - The oldest and most commonly form of Runic script, of ancient Germanic origin. It comprises of 24 letters.
Anglo-Saxon / Anglo Frisian Futhorc - Runic Script from the British Isles, originating from the same source as the Elder Futhark. It has expanded to have as many as 33 runes in its script.
Younger (or Scandinavian) Futhark - A later version of the Elder Futhark, as the Runes spread northwards. The script here was reduced to only 16 Runes.
Aett – (Aettir plural) Family or groups; The three sections or groups of eight, in which the Runes are divided and categorized. The reason for this particular grouping still remains a mystery although there are a few theories, mostly esoterical, that touch on this.
The Eddas - A collection of ancient Norse writings, known as the Poetic Edda and the Prose (or Younger) Edda, which are the purest source of Nordic Mythology, illustrating the ideology and life of the early Germanic people.
The Upsala Codex - A significant parchment manuscript of the “Prose Edda”, which was written around 1220 CE. by Snorri Sturluson.
Hellerisninger - Carvings and paintings dating back to the Bronze Age, found in Scandinavia.
The Havam - Part of the Poetic Edda, it includes Odin’s advise to men called "The Words of the Most High"
Asatru - The religion of ancient Norse gods.
Norns - Norse goddesses of fate or Wyrd, who were responsible for the destiny of people and the gods. Urdh was the goddess of the past, Verdhandi the goddess of the present and Skuld the goddess of the future.
Wyrd – Fate or destiny created by the interconnectedness of all things and the outcomes of one’s actions and choices.
Gandr - Wand or Staff-Called a gandr in the Northern Tradition, the magical wand or staff is considered the most ancient of tools. It is used to move energy from one place to another, to create magical states of consciousness, and to set up sacred areas. It also bridges energies, tying them
together in specific patterns.
The wand or staff is painted or carved with all 24 runes or with specific runic formulas. Often made from wood of a fruit-bearing tree, the gandr can also be made from yew or ash. Associated with Odin, the earth element, and the north direction, staffs measure about as tall as you are, and are larger in diameter than wands. Wands are usually no longer than the length of your arm (fingertip to elbow), and represent the powers of the mind. Because you make them from wood that still contains the vital essence of the tree, gandrs are excellent for use in magic, healing, protection, and power over the elements. They are used to draw runes in the air.

Norse Myths:

Odin - the principal Aesir god, ruler of heaven and Earth, and the god of war, wisdom, agriculture and poetry. As god of the dead, he presided over banquets of those slain in battle. With his brothers Vili and Ve he had killed the primordial frost giant Ymir and used Ymir's body to make all the different realms of the world, as well as the sea and sky. The brothers also created the first human beings, Ask and Embla. Odin was the supreme chief of the Aesir, a society of warrior gods, and though other gods were younger, more handsome, and even physically stronger, Odin's powers and wisdom were foremost. In war, Odin decided the fates of all warriors. He was master of magic and discovered the runes. He was also called All-Father.
Thor - the god of thunder and the sky. Thor was the eldest son of the chief deity, Odin, and Jorth. He was second only to Odin in importance and was probably the most popular god of the Norse pantheon. Thor had three principal possessions, a hammer (Mjöllnir), typifying thunder and lightning and having the virtue of returning to him after it was thrown, a belt (Meginjardir), which doubled his strength, and iron gloves to aid him in throwing his hammer.
Loki - A Giant who become the blood-brother of Odin. Son of the Giant Farbauti (Cruel Smiter) and Giantess Laufrey. Pleasing and handsome, evil in character, capricious in behavior, cunning, he is known as the Trickster God, called "Father of Lies", Shape-changer, Sky-Traveler. Originally, he was the God of Fire. He has fiery red hair and is extremely funny and witty. He would do anything to make people laugh. Eventually, his pranks devolved into practical jokes with a streak of viciousness. Loki ("Fire") first married Glut ("Glow"), who bore him two daughters, Eisa ("Embers") and Einmyria ("Ashes"). Besides this wife, Loki is also said to have wedded the Giantess Angr-boda ("Anguish-Boding") [possibly Gullveig] , who dwelt in Jötunheim, and who bore him the three monsters Hel, Goddess of death, the Midgard snake Iörmungandr, and the wolf Fenris. Loki also bore (as a female) Sleipnir, the eight legged horse, after a mating with a Giant stallion called Svadilfari. His last wife was Sigyn, with whom he had sons Vali and Narfi.
Aegir or Hler - He is usually depicted as an old man with a long white beard.The meaning of his name is associated with water. Aegir was the god of the seashore or ocean, and called the ruler of the sea. He was a personification of the ocean, and caused storms with his anger. Sailors feared Aegir, and thought he would sometimes surface to destroy ships. Because he was sometimes accused of sinking merchant vessels for the gold and other valuables they carried, he became known for his greed.
Baldur - The son of Odin and Frigg, was described as a very handsome and wise god. Some consider him to be a god of light since he was so bright (intelligent), light shined from him. Balder's wife was Nanna and they had a son named Forseti. At one point Balder had a foreboding dream. Odin rode to Hel's realm to wake a volva from the dead to find out the meaning of Balder's dream. Frigg asked all things to swear not to hurt Balder but didn't ask the mistletoe because it was so young. Loki, diguised as an old woman, visited Frigg and found out Balder was invunerable to everything but mistletoe. Loki then made a dart out of mistletoe and tricked the blind god Hod into throwing it at Balder -- all the other gods were playing games by throwing various items at Balder --, thus killing him. Nanna died of heartache after Balder's death and was burned with him on his funeral boat -- along with his chopped up horse and an unfortunate dwarf who Thor kicked in at the last minute. Hermod rode to Hel's realm and got her to agree to let Balder return to the living if all things would weep for him. One giantess named Thokk, Loki in disguise, refused to weep, so he remained dead and was cremated on his funeral boat, hringhorni. He is supposed to come back to life after the Ragnarok.
Frigg - She is the goddess of marriage and the wife of Odin. Another name for Frigg was Saga. Some people call Saga a goddess of history or a goddess of poetry, because the word Saga is connected to the word for history, and also refer to her as a daughter of Odin.
Tyr - He was the god of war, and the only god brave enough to put his hand in the Fenris-Wolf's mouth so the gods could bind it. When the wolf was bound, it bit off his right hand. In the Norse culture the right hand was given for a pledge, which could be why the right hand was placed in the wolf's mouth. It has also been noted, however, that the offering of the right hand is to show that it is free of weapons. A left handed person was sometimes considered evil because he could use a weapon with his left hand even though he shook with his right hand.
Freya - Goddess of fertility and war. She was the daughter of Njord, and the sister of Frey. Her daughters, by Od (no, not Odin, Od.), are named Hnoss, who is so beautiful that whatever is valuable and lovely is named "treasure" after her, and Gersemi.
Frey - god of weather and fertility. He ruled over the land of the light elves, Alfheim. He was the son of Njord and Njord's sister, and the brother of Freya. His step-mother was Skadi. He owned the ship Skidbladnir which was made for him by dwarves. It could sail on the land, sea, or through the air. It was large enough to hold all the gods, but it could be folded up and fit into a pocket. He also owned a chariot drawn by two boars, Gullinbursti and Slidrugtanni. He could ride Gullinbursti through the sky. It was made by dwarves for Loki to give to Frey. His wife was Gerd, a beautiful giantess who he fell in love with when he espied her from Odin's throne. He sent his servant, Skirnir, to win her for him. For this task, Frey lent Skirnir his sword which "swings itself if wise he who wields it" and his horse.
Heimdall - He watches the rainbow bridge, Bifrost , for the coming of the frost giants at the Ragnarok, when he will sound his horn, Gjallar. In the Ragnarok, he and Loki will kill each other. He never sleeps, can see in the dark, and can hear sheep wool growing.
Fenrir-Wolf - Fenrir is a gigantic and terrible monster in the shape of a wolf. He is the eldest child of Loki and the giantess Angrboda. The gods learned of a prophecy which stated that the wolf and his family would one day be responsible for the destruction of the world. They caught the wolf and locked him in a cage. Only the god of war, Tyr, dared to feed and take care of the wolf
Asgard - The home of the gods.
Valhalla - It is the paradise where the souls of great warriors go.
Ragnarok - It is the ultimate battle between good and evil.
Thrudvang – Thunder world.

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